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Journal of ZheJiang University (Engineering Science)  2024, Vol. 58 Issue (1): 1-9    DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-973X.2024.01.001
Improved method for blockchain Kademlia network based on small world theory
Yue ZHAO1,2(),He ZHAO1,Haibo TAN1,2,*(),Bin YU3,Wangnian YU1,2,Zhiyu MA1,2
1. Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China
2. University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
3. Anhui ZhongKeJingGe Technology Limited Company, Hefei 230088, China
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An improved method for the blockchain Kademlia network based on small world theory was proposed aiming at the issue of sacrificing security to improve scalability in the current research of the blockchain Kademlia network. The idea of the small world theory was followed, and a probability formula for replacing expansion nodes was proposed. The probability was inversely proportional to the distance between nodes. The number of node replacements and additional nodes could be flexibly adjusted according to actual conditions. The theoretical analysis and experimental verification demonstrate that the network transformed by this method can reach a stable state. The experimental results showed that the transmission hierarchy required for broadcasting transaction messages throughout the network was reduced by 15.0% to 30.8% and the rate of locating nodes was increased. The level of network structure was reduced and network security was enhanced compared to other optimization algorithms that modify the network structure.

Key wordsblockchain      Kademlia network      small world theory      security     
Received: 11 May 2023      Published: 07 November 2023
CLC:  TP 311  
Fund:  国家重点研发计划资助项目(2021YFB2700800)
Corresponding Authors: Haibo TAN     E-mail:;
Cite this article:

Yue ZHAO,He ZHAO,Haibo TAN,Bin YU,Wangnian YU,Zhiyu MA. Improved method for blockchain Kademlia network based on small world theory. Journal of ZheJiang University (Engineering Science), 2024, 58(1): 1-9.

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针对当前区块链Kademlia网络研究中通常以牺牲安全性为代价提升可扩展性的问题,提出基于小世界理论的区块链Kademlia网络改进方法. 该方法遵循小世界理论的思想,提出置换扩容节点的概率公式,概率与节点间距离呈反比,节点置换次数和额外增加的节点数量可以根据实际情况灵活调整. 通过理论分析和实验验证,证明了采用该方法改造的网络能够达到最终的稳定状态. 实验结果显示,利用该方法将全网广播交易消息时须经历的传输层级减少了15.0%~30.8%,加快了定位节点的速率. 与其他改变网络结构的优化算法相比,该方法降低了网络的结构化程度,增强了网络的安全性.

关键词: 区块链,  Kademlia网络,  小世界理论,  安全性 
Fig.1 Binary prefix tree with 8 nodes
Fig.2 Work flow chart of small world Kad
Fig.3 Four state transition diagrams for node a
Fig.4 Average broadcast hop count of algorithm in different initial states
Fig.5 Average broadcast hop count of algorithm in differen dimensions
Fig.6 Average broadcast hop count of algorithm in differen proportions
Fig.7 Comparison between proposed model and other models in different parameter combinations
Fig.8 Optimization ratio of average broadcast hop count
Fig.9 Optimization ratio of average broadcast hop count after adjusting
Fig.10 Optimization ratio of average find hop count
Fig.11 Optimization ratio of number of false nodes of launching 50% eclipse attack
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