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Journal of ZheJiang University (Engineering Science)  2022, Vol. 56 Issue (3): 569-578    DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-973X.2022.03.016
2D non-cohesive earthen embankment breach model based on linear erosion formula
Meng-fan LIU1(),Gang-feng WU2,*(),Ke-feng ZHANG2,Ping DONG2,3
1. College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2. School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, NingboTech University, Ningbo 315100, China
3. School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, United Kingdom
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A two-dimensional non-cohesive earthen embankment breach model was developed based on a linear erosion formula. Instead of using sediment transport rate and solving sediment transport equations, the relationship between the bed erosion rate and the flow shear stress was directly established based on a linear erosion formula, to calculate the embankment breach. Compared to the existing detailed physically based model, the proposed model was simpler and more efficient. Firstly, two different examples were used, and the validity of a bed slope failure algorithm was verified. Then, the proposed model was applied to simulate the overtopping breach experiments of one-dimensional and two-dimensional non-cohesive earthen embankment. Results showed that the calculated values of the model were all in good agreement with the measurements at the crest elevation, the final breach width and the peak discharge. And the breach of non-cohesive earthen embankment was simulated fairly accurately by the model. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of key parameters was performed to investigate the effects of different parameter values on the simulated results.

Key wordsnon-cohesive earthen embankment      overtopping      numerical simulation      linear erosion formula      central-upwind scheme     
Received: 12 April 2021      Published: 29 March 2022
CLC:  TV 131.4  
Fund:  国家自然科学基金资助项目(51909234);浙江省自然科学基金资助项目(LQ19E090006);浙江省教育厅一般科研资助项目(Y201737690)
Corresponding Authors: Gang-feng WU     E-mail:;
Cite this article:

Meng-fan LIU,Gang-feng WU,Ke-feng ZHANG,Ping DONG. 2D non-cohesive earthen embankment breach model based on linear erosion formula. Journal of ZheJiang University (Engineering Science), 2022, 56(3): 569-578.

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基于线性冲蚀公式建立二维非黏性土石坝溃决模型. 所建模型利用线性冲蚀公式建立床面冲刷率与水流切应力的关系以计算坝体变形,无须应用输沙率公式和求解泥沙输移方程. 与现有精细物理模型相比,所建模型更简单,计算效率更高. 利用2个不同形式的算例,验证边坡坍塌算法的有效性;将所建模型分别应用于一维和二维非黏性土石坝漫顶实验,模型计算的坝顶高程、溃口最终宽度和峰值流量等关键指标值与测量值吻合良好,表明该模型能够较为准确地模拟非黏性土石坝溃坝. 对模型关键参数进行敏感性分析,分析不同参数对计算结果的影响.

关键词: 非黏性土石坝,  漫顶,  数值模拟,  线性冲蚀公式,  中心迎风格式 
Fig.1 Sketch of computational mesh for earthen embankment breach model
Fig.2 Sketch of slope failure process
Fig.3 Workflow diagram of embankment breach model
Fig.4 Test for bed slope failure: prismatic channel
Fig.5 Test for bed slope failure: semi ellipsoidal bump
Fig.6 Schematic diagram of 1D overtopping experiment
Fig.7 Comparison between calculated results and measurement for longitudinal elevation in different erosion coefficients
Fig.8 Calculated longitudinal elevation with and without slope failure model
Fig.9 Comparison between calculated results and measurement of discharge hydrograph in different erosion coefficients
算例 Qmax/(m3·s?1) δm/% δr/% zbf/m δm/% δr/%
测量值 0.110 0.540
参照组 0.113 3.50 0.575 6.44
τc = 10?1 Pa 0.113 3.50 0 0.575 6.44 0
τc = 10?3 Pa 0.113 3.50 0 0.575 6.44 0
φc,wet = 25° 0.129 17.54 13.56 0.482 ?10.83 ?16.23
φc,wet = 35° 0.100 ?9.03 ?12.11 0.635 10.54 10.54
φc,dry = 40° 0.113 3.50 0 0.575 6.44 0
φc,dry = 60° 0.113 3.50 0 0.575 6.44 0
φc,dry = 70° 0.113 3.50 0 0.575 6.44 0
φc,dry = 80° 0.113 3.50 0 0.575 6.44 0
nf= 0.015 m?1/3·s 0.083 ?24.24 ?27.00 0.672 24.44 17.00
nf= 0.020 m?1/3·s 0.138 25.45 22.12 0.493 ?8.70 ?14.26
Tab.1 Sensitivity analysis of parameters for 1D overtopping breach
Fig.10 Configurations of 2D overtopping experiment
Fig.11 Calculated bed topography at different time
Fig.12 Calculated elevation profiles along dam axis at different time
Fig.13 Simulated bed topography and velocity vector field at peak breach flow
Fig.14 Comparison between measured and simulated breach flow discharge and breach width
Fig.15 Sensitivity analysis of parameters for 2D overtopping breach
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