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Journal of ZheJiang University (Engineering Science)  2019, Vol. 53 Issue (6): 1047-1056    DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-973X.2019.06.004
Civil and St ructural Engineering     
IFC-based data visualization of 3D Tiles for buildings
Zhao XU1(),Lu ZHANG1,Hua SUO2,Ying-zi CHI3
1. School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210000, China
2. School of Architecture & Urban Planning, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510000, China
3. Nanjing Tech University Pujiang Institute, Nanjing 210000, China
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In view of the shortcomings of the network transmission and browser rendering in current BIM and GIS integration schemes, 3D Tiles in the GIS domain was chosen as the research object considering that it is more suitable to be loaded on webpages; the method was proposed to convert IFC to 3D Tiles for BIM models and to load BIM data quickly on Web; meanwhile, the integrated solution was analyzed to show BIM-GIS data massively on Web. The IFC data was taken as the starting point and splits BIM data according to the building component categories, and the geometry information and the semantic attributes were obtained. The geometry information file was converted by the intermediate format and finally encapsulated with the semantic attribute file to form 3D Tiles data with BIM semantic attributes. The coordinate conversion, data mapping, spatial index and levels of detail (LOD) hierarchical division are completed during the conversion process to ensure fast and efficient rendering interaction of BIM data and geographical feature data in the 3D WebGIS framework.

Key wordsindustry foundation class (IFC)      3D Tiles      3D WebGIS      building information modeling (BIM)      building      data integration     
Received: 11 December 2018      Published: 22 May 2019
CLC:  TU 205  
Cite this article:

Zhao XU,Lu ZHANG,Hua SUO,Ying-zi CHI. IFC-based data visualization of 3D Tiles for buildings. Journal of ZheJiang University (Engineering Science), 2019, 53(6): 1047-1056.

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基于工业基础类的建筑物3D Tiles数据可视化

针对目前建筑信息模型(BIM)与地理信息系统(GIS)集成方案网络传输与浏览器渲染能力的不足,选择GIS领域更适合Web端加载的三维瓦片数据作为研究目标,提出BIM模型从工业基础类(IFC)向3D Tiles数据格式的转化方法和在Web端快速加载BIM模型的思路,并对GIS和BIM在Web端的大体量数据集成方案进行研究. 针对IFC标准模型数据,根据建筑构件划分标准对数据进行拆分,得到几何信息文件和语义属性文件. 几何信息文件经中间格式转换,最终与语义属性文件封装为保留有BIM语义属性的三维瓦片数据. 在转换过程中完成了坐标转换、数据映射、空间索引以及多细节层级(LOD)划分,实现了BIM数据和地理要素数据在三维WebGIS框架下快速、高效的渲染交互.

关键词: 工业基础类(IFC),  三维瓦片,  三维WebGIS,  建筑信息模型(BIM),  建筑物,  数据集成 
Fig.1 Research methodology of data visualization of 3D Tiles based on industry foundation class(IFC)
Fig.2 Conversion process map of IFC to 3D Tiles
Fig.3 Leveled structure of glTF data
Fig.4 File hear and body structure of tile data b3dm
Fig.5 Correspondence between tile unit data and 3D tiles structure
Fig.6 Split global model to IFC and JSON property files
Fig.7 Mapping process of element attribute data to model
Fig.8 Tile-based spatial index structure of quadtree,k-d tree,octree and grid
Fig.9 Perspective frustum in model rendering process
Fig.10 Side view of frustum in model rendering process
Fig.11 Frustum culling in model rendering process
Fig.12 Backface culling in model rendering process
Fig.13 Retrieve tile nodes with scene dispatch algorithm
Fig.14 Frame rate(non-culled)in model rendering process
Fig.15 Frame rate(culling)in model rendering process
类别 类型 类型标记 数量
中悬窗 900×900 C1527 108
凸窗-四扇-斜切 2 600×2 400 C1519 72
凸窗-三扇推拉-斜切 3 000×2 400 C1517 36
推拉窗 1 200×2 100 C1521 144
推拉窗1 1 800×2 100 C1520 90
欧式窗套窗1 1 800×2 100 C1530 32
转角凸窗-双层两列-斜切 1 200×2 400 C1523 36
Tab.1 List of window components for experimental model
IFC类型 IfcSite IfcBuilding
IfcWall IfcBeam
IfcWindow IfcSlabIfcColumn
IfcDoor IfcStair
渲染类型 包围盒
Tab.2 Loading situation of LOD hierarchy models
Fig.16 3D earth scene in Cesium frame
Fig.17 Close and distant views of experimental model in Cesium
Fig.18 Elements and attributes scene of experimental model in Cesium
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