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JOURNAL OF ZHEJIANG UNIVERSITY 2021 Vol.51 Number 3
2021, Vol.51 Num.3
Online: 2021-05-10

Article
 
Article
1
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 1- [Abstract] ( 332 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2065KB] ( 473 )
5 Bao Dawei
Marxian Political Philosophy: Parody and Its Truth Program Hot!
About the texts of Marxian political philosophy, there have been three disputes. One is the “Tucker-Wood thesis”, which indicates that the concepts of political philosophy never exist in the texts. The second is contextual research, which believes that the political situation of class struggle naturally pushes the texts self-constructed as political philosophy. The third is the ethical study, which believes that normative values are the original intention throughout all Karl Marx’s life. However, these studies have not analyzed the historical foundation and objective political conditions that Marx faced in the eyes of Marx himself, nor have they answered the question of how Marxian political philosophy texts are possible as a guidance for the revolutionary practice for more than a century. Returning to the methodology and objects of criticism in Marxian political philosophy, it is obvious that parody is a textual clue. Before 1844, parody was a writing strategy Marx had to adopt. Under the strict censorship system, Marx had to use terms parodying Hegel’s political philosophy to reveal the reactionary Prussian political system. However, with the beginning of life in exile and the formation of historical materialism, the strategic and straightforward parody writing turned to a metaphorical, unconscious writing habit, which is intuitively reflected in Marx’s references of ancient philosophy, enlightenment political philosophy, and Hegelian philosophy. This makes readers inevitably fall into a paradox. If the Marxian text is equated with the political teachings for the proletariat, then the concepts that constitute these teachings are obviously closely related to the philosophy and economics. If the Marxian text is regarded as the continuation of the political philosophy tradition since Plato, it is difficult to explain why Marx used the historical resources to “abolish philosophy”. Through the parody of classical philosophy, Marx demonstrated the revolutionary value of the tradition of returning to the classical since the Renaissance, indicating the possibilities that reason can further realize subjectivity in modern times. Through parody of Rousseau’s philosophy, Marx revealed the lack of meaning of the republican tradition that has been regarded as political correctness since the Enlightenment, indicating the contradiction between abstract political liberation and its theoretical basis. Through the parody of Hegelian philosophy of right, Marx applied the dialectics once regarded as idealist methodology in a materialistic way, revealing the objective consistency between natural historical laws and materialist dialectics, pointing out the possibility of the revolutionary practice as a scientific program.Compared with political economics or scientific socialism, the parody of Marxian political philosophy texts is particularly prominent. The absence of terminologies such as justice and freedom that make analytical Marxist researchers quite satisfied is indeed a way Marx tried to “deconstruct” the prior texts as much as possible to inspire the critical thinking and class consciousness of the proletarian readers through keeping a distance from texts and concepts derived from the history of thought. The historical science that negates traditional values has troubled the ethical researchers but it is actually Marx’s way of staying prudent in the discussions on politics and normative values which are generated objectively and historically. In fact, parody writing embodies the dialectical relationship between Marx and the ideology of his time. This relationship eventually evolved into the Marxian reconstruction of the meaning of revolution in the dimension of modernity. Certainly, it is precisely by using parody as a faithful way to express dialectics that Marxian political philosophy texts have realized the meaning in different forms, showing the possibility of textual meaning that can advance with the times, as well as providing the proletariat with the textual meaning that can be absorbed in revolutionary practices.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 5-15 [Abstract] ( 390 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 748KB] ( 444 )
16 Duan Zhiwen, Zhu Yuannan
Logical Evolution of Historical Form of Social Deliberative Democracy in China Hot!
Chinese deliberative democracy begins with the founding of the People’s Republic of China, develops with the reform and opening-up and the economic system reform. Under the new modes of the economic and social development in the 21st Century, it becomes mature and finalized. There are three critical changes in the form of Chinese social deliberative democracy. The first stage was the beginning of a top-down social deliberative democracy that focused on policy-making in the early New China. The second stage is the development of a bottom-up social deliberative democracy with economic construction since the reform and opening-up. And the last is the maturity of the form of social deliberative democracy, which has been promoted by the joint efforts of the government and society since the beginning of the new century. Revealing the evolution of the historical form of social deliberative democracy has great theoretical value and practical significance. This will help us grasp the historical path of the Communist Party’s deliberative democracy exploration, understand the great practice of the Sinicization of the Marxist theory of state and civil society, promote the modernization of socialist democratic politics and state governance, and enhance the international discourse right of China’s deliberative democracy.Chinese social deliberative democracy originated after the founding of New China. The Chinese Communist Party was in power and was facing a large number of tasks in national management and economic construction. In order to consolidate the political power, govern the country and develop the economy, a form of social deliberative democracy promoted by the state from top to bottom with policy-making as the center was formed.After the reform and opening-up, economic society has undergone profound changes again. On the one hand, a large number of independent interest individuals or groups hope to realize economic benefits through consultation and democratic channels; on the other hand, a large number of social interest contradictions need to be resolved through social deliberative democracy. Thus, the bottom-up social deliberative democracy which adapts to the social and civil requirements has been formed. Since the beginning of the new century, further development of market economy has brought about a diversified development of social structure, power structure and concept structure. The way of social governance has gradually developed into a pattern of common governance of market system, social system, state power system and party system. The multi-interests pattern calls for social consensus, seeking a balance of multiple interests and common divisor of the greatest interest. Social deliberative democracy has entered a new stage in which government and society work together to promote public governance.Throughout the logical evolution of the historical form of social deliberative democracy in China, we can see that the formation and development of our country’s social deliberative democracy is a conscious choice and great creation of the Chinese Communist Party based on reality and through China’s unique political democratization path. It is a development of the Marxist theory of state and civil society in China. It provides a Chinese experience and inspiration for the development of world democratic politics and world deliberative democracy.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 16-28 [Abstract] ( 364 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 679KB] ( 293 )
29 Chen Yumei, Fu Huan
A Knowledge Mapping Analysis of Research Discourse in the Studies on Chinas Non-traditional Security: A Visualization Approach Based on CiteSpace Hot!
Under the globalization background, there have emerged many insecure factors of various forms directly threatening all countries and human beings. Therefore, non-traditional security research and non-traditional security crisis response have become the top priority of academic planning and decision-making in countries around the world. Through a comprehensive comparison and analysis of the evolution of “research discourse” in the domestic and foreign literature on China’s non-traditional security research in the past 20 years, research hotspots and trends can be intuitively extracted, thus enabling better understanding and guidance in the construction and development of the theoretical research framework of China’s non-traditional security. In this study, China’s non-traditional security and related topics were used as keywords to search in the Chinese full-text journal database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), from which 3,064 Chinese documents of the past 20 years were retrieved. Meanwhile, the retrieval formula “SU=security study+China+Chinese” was used to search in the English literature database Web of Science, and 939 English journals were obtained. After a total of 4,003 documents were imported into the document analysis software CiteSpace, macro- and micro-quantitative researches on the interdisciplinary scope, research hotspots, discourse evolution and development trends of China’s non-traditional security were conducted in multiple dimensions such as the distribution of disciplines, research institutions and authors’ cooperation networks, keywords co-occurrences and clustering clusters, and burst terms from the research fronts. A comprehensive comparison with international non-traditional security research theories was also done at the same time.In the past 20 years, China’s non-traditional security research has shown an obvious growth trend in quantity. It reached its climax in 2014, after China put forward the “overall national security outlook”. Domestic research is more comprehensive and is led by Chinese and international politics researches, showing an interdisciplinary nature. Foreign research is more specific and can be refined into various non-traditional security areas such as economics and environmental ecology. At present, domestic research institutions are mainly located at Zhejiang University, Fudan University, University of International Relations, etc. Most journals are written by YU Xiaofeng, LIU Yuejin, XU Huabing, etc. However, there is still a lack of in-depth integration and cooperation among researchers from different institutions. An effective academic exchange and cooperation mechanism has not yet been formed. Most of the research institutions and scholars contributing to the relevant English literature are mainly domestic, mostly from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhejiang University and other institutions.Nine clustering clusters were formed according to the co-occurrence and hierarchical cluster analysis maps, including security cooperation, overall national security outlook, non-traditional security, human security, non-combat military operations, North America, international cooperation, fields, and higher education. In the analysis of burst terms from the research fronts, 57 burst terms were obtained from all keywords and nominal terms. They have roughly gone through three stages from 1999 to the present. Globalization, cultural security, overall national security outlook, and the Belt and Road Initiative have become popular keywords at each stage. After comparing the development of international theories on non-traditional security research and the most frequently used keywords in the foreign literature such as “China”, “security”, and “food security”, this article summarizes four evolution paths: (1) high-level political security research focusing on “globalization”; (2) low-level political security research focusing on “environmental security” and “social security”; (3) soft security research focusing on “cultural security” and “network security”; and (4) the security paradigm and security field research based mainly on “the Belt and Road Initiative” and “overall national security outlook”.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 29-47 [Abstract] ( 473 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 11340KB] ( 431 )
48 Guo Caihua, Zhang Guoqing
Global Security Crisis and Building a Security Community for Mankind Hot!
Theories such as balance of power, deterrence, collective security, democratic peace, interdependence are proposed by three major schools of contemporary international relations to solve the security dilemma of the international society. However, the international anti-terrorism cooperation is quite inefficient with the major Western countries, which adopt traditional security views, always exploit terrorism against strategic rivals and use unilateralism and dual standards in the wars on terror. This means that the limitations of traditional security ideas and corresponding solutions are often exposed.Generally speaking, international relations scholars believe that the essence of the relationship between countries is similar to the natural state of Hobbes: the international community is actually in a state of anarchy and all countries are always lost in a security dilemma, for there is no institution with sufficient legitimacy and authority to adjust conflicts among nations. Actually, the existing international law is so weak that it is only regarded as a piece of advice for sovereign governments in most situations. International law has no fundamental coercive power over countries, so countries can choose either to enforce or not to enforce according to their own circumstances. Thus, in an international anarchy, the countries whose interests are harmed resort to self-help instead of international law. Historically, in order to maintain their own interests and solve the security dilemma of survival, countries had to resort to a series of solutions. Three modern international relations theories are constructed to provide different theory systems and solutions to the dilemma based on the assumption of international anarchy.Each solution has distinguished features, but they are often under a lot of criticisms. Realism theories which are based on pessimistic assumptions of human nature, put forward theories such as deterrence, containment, collective security, balance of power, hegemonic stability and alliance to maintain the unbreakable balance of power between different power groups. But the balance of the game will be broken sooner or later and then all efforts will give up halfway. Liberal theories are optimistic about human nature. The theorists believe that the security dilemma will be eliminated by increasing interdependence through economic cooperation among countries. Their solutions include democratic peace, power interdependence and international institution cooperation, but liberal theorists do not recognize that these theories are the accessory tools created by the hegemony countries to maintain the hegemony systems of the hegemonic states. What they achieve is the interests of hegemony and temporary peace. Constructivism holds that a country can shape the relationship between its enemies and friends according to its own needs, but it attaches too much importance to the subjectivity of human beings instead of material objectivity, and fails to realize that the subjective construction of a country is not omnipotence.Limited by the traditional security concept, the security crisis that the international community is facing is increasing: the continuous expansion of the pandemic, the turbulence of the world situation aggravated by great game powers, major Western countries seeking new nuclear deterrents under the new Cold War mentality, and global diffusion of terrorism. Based on long-term practices and theory discussions, Chinese government and Chinese academic circles put forward new security concepts featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and collaboration. Human society is forming a closely connected community and the international community must therefore abandon old traditional security ideas and work together to build a security community on the basis of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and collaboration to deal with common serious threats and stop the global flooding trend of terrorism.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 48-60 [Abstract] ( 459 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 772KB] ( 676 )
61 Zhao Jun, Liu Guowei
Power Play Between Nations in International Law: From the Perspective of Small States Challenging Big States Hot!
International law is an important medium for the power play between nations. Although big states play a leading role in creating and applying international laws, there is an increasing trend that small states have been challenging big states with the help of international laws. How to deal with the challenges that small states launch by using international laws is a practical issue that big states have to consider.When we analyze the topic of small states using international laws to challenge big states, there are several issues that cannot be ignored. First, we must determine how to distinguish between big and small states. The methods of distinguishing big states from small states are diverse. However, there is a consensus on which countries are big states. Second, it is important to determine what drives small states to challenge big states. This could be caused by the disparities in roles played by small states and big states in the development of international laws. Small states may also have concerns about protecting their own interests. Moreover, differences in the ability to cope with risks could also cause small states to challenge big states. Finally, the intervention of other big states could also affect small states’ behavior.There are two major ways small states may challenge big states. One is to rely on international legislations and the other is to rely on international courts. In terms of the former one, small states have made a series of legal attempts with the help of international organizations. As to international courts, a large number of judicial institutions provide diverse platforms for small states to challenge big states. It should be noted that there are both commonalities and differences between the way small states challenge big states and the way countries with close or symmetrical powers challenge each other.Facing the challenges of small states, big states should analyze the following aspects. Firstly, at the micro level, it is necessary to examine whether the behavior of small states complies with relevant rules of international laws. Secondly, it is necessary to analyze whether the behavior of small states creates an imbalance of rights and obligations between countries. Thirdly, at the macro level, it is necessary to examine whether the behavior of small states facilitates the development of international rule of law. In the process of dealing with the challenges from small states, big states can respond in four ways: playing a leading role in safeguarding the authority of international laws, analyzing the demands of small states from a longer-term perspective, seeking interests in common with the small states, and maintaining self-interests in a reasonable and proper manner. As one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council and the largest developing country in the world, China must pay attention to the challenges initiated by small states with the help of international laws.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 61-75 [Abstract] ( 855 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 805KB] ( 707 )
76 He Zhipeng, Shen Tianjiao
Governance of International Soft Law for the Protection of Refugee Rights Hot!
The international community is committed to durable solutions to refugee problems through multiple methods, including politics, economy and law. When large-scale refugee flows, responding to the refugee crisis in an urgent situation, the actual effect of hard law has not been up to expectations from the legal perspective, and moreover, lawmaking such as multilateral treaties is hindered under the background of “counter-globalization”. In recent years, to open a new situation, new developments within the field of refugees have pointed to international soft laws. It is representative of a general trend. In particular, the two Global Compacts have led to a breakthrough at the global level, with regional and sub-regional soft laws gaining momentum. The landscape of soft laws is evolving dynamically. International soft law is not only a secondary option to be passively selected, but also favored by actors in international relations. By performing various functions, it can make a difference. Taking status of stages of hard law in existence in this field as a reference for analysis of the interaction between hard law and soft law, it can be concluded that soft law fills gaps and holes in the law, supplements and interprets hard law and transmits effective information, and that soft law is independent and coherent in compliance with the evolution of the law. Moreover, regarding the conversion of “non-refoulement” into customary international law, soft law has a positive effect on the transformation from quantitative changes to qualitative changes. The significance endowed to soft law changes with changing status of norms. If norms have become customary international law, soft law deepens and enriches the connotations of them. In contrast, even if norms have not yet become customary law, soft law will be able to constitute opinion juries and (or) uniform state practice and (or) to provide positive evidences for forming the two elements. It is beneficial to the proof of customary law. As the embodiment of the two elements, the “words” and “act” originated from states is used to judge them. Dislocation of “words” and “act” is possible to happen in the context of contradiction between ideal and reality. National interest is a core factor to be influential for choices and behavior of states in the international community. Once the standard of norms is set too high beyond the limit, states are incapable of accepting them or they may even refuse to adopt them, then compliance with the law becomes tough. It is in this legal sense that keeping balance is extremely crucial to refugee issues. Specifically, states defend national sovereignty and interest, refugees and asylum seekers struggle for their own rights, and UNHCR acts within the limits of their authority. As for exerting the role of soft law, on the one hand, it addresses practical challenges via the approach of “norms-regulation” to participate in governance. On the other hand, soft law makes a long-term cumulative contribution to the lawmaking and progress of hard law to be indirectly involved in governance. Both soft law and hard law aim at promoting legal institutions towards benign development and the pursuit the goal of the rule of law. Undoubtedly, it is necessary to understand soft law objectively, which means the abandonment of prejudices against soft law and establishment of reasonable expectations. While it is true that non-binding is the nature of soft law, it can have an actual effect in practice that should not be underestimated. At the same time, however, it can’t be exaggerated, since the observance of the law is an unavoidable issue for hard law as well as for soft law. To achieve the vision of “good law”, the enactment of soft law requires consideration of rationality and feasibility. Because of the variety of soft laws, some of them have a high degree of participation in governance that is helpful for “good governance”. Through cooperative governance, soft law acts together with hard law to complement each other, and that takes on the effect of “one plus one is larger than two” and forms a virtuous cycle. For China, enacting refugee laws is not an urgent and optimal scheme. Progressive inquiries and transitions with pluralistic measures are necessary instead. Experience of soft law in the field may well be applied flexibly to adjust domestic legal relations of other fields. China gets involved in governance in an appropriate way that is in line with its national conditions.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 76-94 [Abstract] ( 575 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 904KB] ( 617 )
95 Yang Liuyong, Zhang Zeye, Zheng Jianming
Does Central Government Environmental Inspection Promote Firm Environmental Protection Expenditure? Evidences from Listed Companies in China Hot!
With the rapid growth of the Chinese economy, the problem of environmental deterioration has been increasingly serious. As primary environmental polluters, firms should have borne the responsibility of environmental governance and increased the investment in environmental protection. However, due to the externalities of environmental protection, firms are often reluctant to participate in environmental investment. In order to regulate the firms’ environmental behavior, the Chinese central government has set up a series of polices for environmental protection over the last few years. However, driven by the priority of economic growth, the local government has weaker incentives to implement environmental regulations, and the phenomenon of incomplete implementation by the local government is common, which highlights the importance of supervising the local governments to intensify environmental enforcement.The Central Environmental Inspection (CEI) launched in 2016 is a significant institutional arrangement for the environmental protection in China, which focuses on the local governments’ responsibility for environmental protection. According to the instructions of the CEI, inspection teams established by the central government are dispatched to supervise the local environmental enforcement. The fundamental purposes of the CEI are to improve the quality of the environment and promote the green transformation of the industry. Therefore, it is significant to analyze the impact of the CEI on the firms’ investment in environmental protection. However, most studies on the CEI mainly focus on theoretical discussions and effect evaluation, and there is little evidence about whether and how the CEI influences the firm environmental protection expenditure. Taking the launch of the CEI as a quasi-natural experiment, this paper examines the effect of the CEI on the firms’ investment in environmental protection with the help of a difference-in-differences methodology.The conclusions of this paper are as follows. First, the CEI significantly enhances the firm environmental protection expenditure, and this relationship is robust to the different specifications and alternative measures. Second, the improved level of environmental enforcement is a possible channel, and there is no evidence that governmental subsidy plays a role. Third, heterogeneity analysis shows that the promotion effect of the CEI on the firm environmental investment is particularly pronounced in subsamples with high-revenue firms and state-owned firms (SOEs), and is insignificant in the subsample of non-SOEs with political connections, which suggests that local protectionism has been relieved during the CEI. In addition, firms in monopolized industries or located in key inspection provinces invest more in environmental protection during the CEI. Based on the above conclusions, this paper suggests the government should supervise the local governments’ implementation of environmental regulations and promote the normalization of the CEI. Besides, this study makes several contributions to the extant literature. First, previous studies mainly pay attention to the effect of the CEI on air pollution while ignoring the firms’ environmental behavior. This paper provides causal evidences that the CEI significantly promotes the firm environmental investment, which not only enriches the literature on the determinants of firms’ environmental efforts, but also expands the literature on the environmental consequences of the CEI. Second, with the help of a difference-in-differences method, a difference-in-differences-in-differences method, and a propensity-score-matching method, this paper is able to avoid endogenous problems among variables, and provide a causal relationship between the CEI and the firm environmental protection expenditure. Third, this paper provides implications for the follow-up promotion of the CEI and the formulation of environment policies.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 95-116 [Abstract] ( 360 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1043KB] ( 752 )
117 Liu Bin, Xiao Wen
Why Is the Market-to-Book Effect Not Significant in China? Hot!
The positive return differential between high and low book-to-market stocks is the value effect, having been documented in many markets around the world. A great number of researches have shown that the market-to-book (MB) factor performs poorly in tests on China’s portfolios. The mechanism for why the MB effect is not significant in China needs a more detailed description, but further study in this area is deficient. As an emerging market, the volatility of China’s stock market is larger than that of developed countries. The high return volatility leads us to suspect that the market behavior of investors may interfere with the measurement of the MB effect. We decompose MB into market-to-value and value-to-book components by using the model introduced by Rhodes-Kropf, Robinson, and Viswanathan (2005). By analyzing the dynamic adjustment behavior between the value-to-book component and the convenience MB by using the partial adjustment model proposed by Flannery and Rangan (2006), we find that MB fluctuates up and down around the value-to-book component, and we define this finding as an anchor-twisting motion. After excluding the anchor-twisting component, we re-test the three-factor pricing model proposed by Fama and French by using the Chinese portfolio, and find that the MB effect changes from insignificant (t value=-1.202) to significant (t value=-3.561). The finding of our research provides a standard data preprocessing program for the follow-up research of Fama and French’s factor pricing test on China’s portfolios. The result of the partial adjustment model shows that MB’s adjustment speed is 0.85, which indicates that the typical firm completes more than half of its proper market capital adjustment in less than one year. The adjustment parameter is significant at the 99 confidence level, which suggests that the anchor-twisting motion is widespread in Chinese stock markets. Over the 1998 to 2017 period, a long-short portfolio strategy based on the conventional MB ratio produces an average return of -2.3% per year. The same strategy based on value-to-book produces an average return of 8.4%, whereas the market-to-value produces an average return of -10.3%. Our baseline results show that the entire value premium concentrates on the value-to-book component. The market behavioral component (market-to-value) interferes with the measurement of the conventional MB effect. The formal pricing tests show that the value-to-book component can explain the cross-section of returns. The parameter of the three-factor regression rises by 42 basis points from MB’s -0.017 (t=-1.202) to M*B’s -0.059 (t=-3.561), significant at 99% confidence level. We give a specific explanation for the source of the anchor-twisting motion. The M (market capital) and B (book value) have different information transmission efficiency. M’s information transmission efficiency is higher because the price is transmitted in real-time, while B’s information transmission efficiency is lower because the financial information is disclosed quarterly. Investors always optimistically or pessimistically predict the future based on past information, when the past B rises, their expectation for future B will also rise. Once they find that their optimistic or pessimistic expectations are not in line with the new disclosed B, they will overbuy or sell stocks in the opposite direction. Under this view, the anchor-twisting motion represents reversals of expectation errors, which tend to occur around earnings announcement dates following portfolio formation. The anchor-twisting motion reflects systematically optimistic and pessimistic expectations. The widespread anchor-twisting motion is due to the inefficiency of information transmission in the Chinese stock market. We suggest that China continuously improve the information disclosure system of listed companies. The contributions of this paper are summarized as follows. (1) We define the anchor-twisting motion and find it is widespread in the Chinese market. (2) By decomposing MB into market-to-value and value-to-book components, we find that the entire value premium concentrates on the value-to-book components, and the market-to-value component interferes with the measurement of the conventional MB effect. (3) We provide a standard data preprocessing program for the follow-up research of Fama and French’s factor pricing test on China’s portfolios.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 117-131 [Abstract] ( 370 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 823KB] ( 473 )
132 Lou Hansong, Wang Yangwuji
A Study of Guan Yu's Red Face Image Hot!
Guan Yu’s image change is a cumulative process over generations. Only the long beard of Guan Yu is recorded in literature before the Tang Dynasty. The image of Guan Yu was divinized as a stern ghost accompanied by a long snake in the Tang Dynasty. The image I began to be associated with Buddhism and Taoism in the Song Dynasty, while his external characteristics remained in golden armor, green scarf and gorgeous beard. It was only in the Yuan Dynasty that the image of Guan Yu suddenly appeared with red face characteristics.In the previous studies, the characteristics of a red face was simply interpreted as a symbol of the spirit of loyalty and righteousness, while the negative meaning of a red face in the Chinese cultural contexts was neglected. First of all, red face and loyalty are not in a one to one correspondence, such as Liu Laozhi, Liu Zhiyuan and other unfaithful and unrighteous people also have the characteristics of a red face. The second is that red face also has such negative connotations as shame, cowardice, and wrong-heartedness. Together with the special religious and cultural background of the Yuan Dynasty, it is not difficult to find that Guan Yu’s red face characteristics were the product of the combined influence of folk beliefs and Buddhist Tantric culture.On the one hand, red is the color of blood, and the red face ghosts and deities in folk beliefs often carry the characteristics of injustice, death in vain, ferocity, and terror, which overlap with the image of Guan Sanlang recorded in the Tang Dynasty notes and correspond to Guan Yu’s experience of dying a horrific death to become a deity. On the other hand, Guan Yu’s image of red face was also influenced by the Tantric Buddhism of the Yuan Dynasty. Guan Yu’s influence was weak during the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty, and the Yuan Dynasty was a crucial period for the enhancement of Guan Yu’s divine character. For the first time, under the leadership of the great Yuan Dynasty Emperor Master Phags-pa, Guan Yu was transformed from a local ghost into a grand national Buddhist protector, appearing in Tantric pujas as a supervising altar protector. As for the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism, where Phags-pa is located, importance is attached to the red Power Love Yidam, and Guan Yu has been regarded in Tibetan Buddhism as the incarnation of a red protector, the Bright Red Lord of Life. A close reading of the text shows that the “Prayers of the Master Guan Yu” by the Living Buddha Tuguan is identical to the Commentary on the Other Biography of Master Tiantai Zhizhe by Tanzhao of the Song Dynasty in terms of characterization, environmental elements, and storyline, indicating that Guan Yu’s self-contained folk beliefs were accepted by both Chinese Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism, and were given a new Buddhist packaging and interpretation.After the Yuan Dynasty, Guan Yu was not only a protector of the Buddhist religion but also a deity of war, wealth, learning and love. All of these deities ruled by Guan Yu originated from the functions of conquest, gathering wealth and hooking and regulating possessed by the red Power Love Yidam.According to the above-mentioned cross-studies, which include literature and history, interaction between iconography and literature, and literature and religion, the image of Guan Yu is a successful outcome of the diversified symbiosis and exchange and integration of Chinese culture.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 132-142 [Abstract] ( 476 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 5306KB] ( 680 )
143 Jin Jianren
Influences of Chinese Character Writing on the Way of Thinking Hot!
The root difference between Chinese and Western thinking modes has usually been attributed to the difference between Chinese and Western languages, i.e. to the difference between Chinese characters and alphabetic words. In fact, the modern Chinese character system is the same as the alphabetic system in that both of them have an established arbitrary relationship between the signifier and the signified. Furthermore, paratactic Chinese has the same function as hypotactic Western languages though they have different structures. That is to say, the languages and their writing systems are not the main causes of the difference between Chinese and Western ways of thinking, and Chinese characters and Chinese language are not the root causes of Modern China’s backwardness and suffering beatings neither.However, it was the way of writing that became the initial condition for the difference between Chinese and Western thinking modes. To be exact, it was the different limitations of writing objects, tools and materials of Chinese and Western languages that caused the difference. In ancient China, writings of intricate shapes of complicated radicals, tortuous strokes and changeable postures on oracle bones and seals were never easy. It was difficult to handle the soft writing brushes and freshly ground ink and even more difficult to write on wooden and bamboo slips. Compared with the Western way of writing in the corresponding period, Western people had already had hard-tipped pens, papyrus and parchment, which could basically meet the needs of writing of their alphabetic scripts. The speed and capacity of ancient Chinese writing, which lagged behind thinking seriously, could only record the results of thinking, but hardly the thinking process and thinking itself. Therefore, what people could see in later generations was mostly aphorisms, which resulted in a fragmentary and abstract-style writing type, and formed a jumping text style full of interpretation indeterminacies. This type of writing strengthened the expressive ways of analogy, example, comparison, symbol, metaphor and fable based on the characteristics of objects, and naturally formed the Chinese thinking mode of intuition, insight, wisdom and integration of everything in the universe, which was completely different from the Western thinking mode based on concepts, definitions, reasoning and deduction. The limitations of writing conditions thus discouraged Chinese people from formal thinking, analytical thinking, and mechanical thinking, but encouraged them to adopt dialectical thinking, holistic thinking, and organic thinking.The emergence and gradual popularization of paper broke off the restriction of heavy bamboo slips and precious silk as the materials of writing, and as a result China began to surpass the West in the way of writing. But why there had been few professional, logical and systematic works in China as it was in the Western countries until the end of the Qing Dynasty? This is because the way of writing is only one of the necessary conditions for shaping the way of thinking and cannot constitute its necessary and sufficient condition. Other important factors like social politics, history and culture are also involved in the necessary conditions. Since modern times, increasingly frequent exchanges between China and the Western countries have affected the use of Chinese characters and the development of Chinese language itself, and have been interacting with the Chinese way of thinking. After absorbing some grammar and expressions of Western languages, modern Chinese has now become an international language, which in principle can be translated into any foreign language and vice versa, i. e. it is easy to use any language to express Chinese thinking. A language is not a stereotyped product, but a kind of activity and a living organism. It not only presupposes people’s living conditions, helps or limits people’s understanding and grasp of the world, but also changes itself to adapt to and meet people’s needs. The different effects of different language characteristics on thinking mainly occur in people’s subconsciousness. Once people know the strengths and weaknesses of their own language, it will inevitably lead them to change their language, which in turn will bring about changes of their ways of thinking. To explore the initial causes of the differences between Chinese and Western ways of thinking can restore the innocence of Chinese characters and endow them with the same modern legitimacy as all other languages.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 143-152 [Abstract] ( 545 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 682KB] ( 460 )
153 Bian Tiangang
New Proof of Collation and Interpretation of Huainanzi from the Perspective of Character, Word Meaning and Word Relationship in the Early Western Han Dynasty Hot!
Some of the problems of collation and interpretation in Huainanzi (《淮南子》) are controversial or have no good solutions. Based on the actual Chinese language in the early Western Han Dynasty, there are often new breakthroughs. Firstly, part of the collation problem can only be explained satisfactorily through the form of Libian (隶变) characters in the early Western Han Dynasty. For example: (1) It is most direct and credible that “德” character was wrongly formed into “位” due to its Zhangcao (章草) character . In the Tianwen chapter of Huainanzi, the “位” in “爵有位” is a mistake of “德”. (2) In the Tianxia chapter of Huainanzi, “云臺” is a mistake of “云夢”. In the Western Han Dynasty, “夢” can be written as , easily to be misidentified as “臺”. According to the characteristics of the text configuration in different periods, it can be inferred that the occurrence of text errors was no later than the end of the Western Han Dynasty. Secondly, in the collation and interpretation of ancient books, we should further implement the perspectives on the history of Chinese language development, and proceed from the actual meaning and relationship of words in the Western Han Dynasty to rationally evaluate the disputes of the predecessors and draw more convincing new theories. For example: (1) In Zhushu chapter of Huainanzi, “害” is actually a mistake of “容”, and in this sentence it should mean “set”. “Set” is a very commonly used meaning of “容” in the Han Dynasty and before. (2) In Taizu chapter of Huainanzi, the “脩” should be a mistake of “循”. “循” and “揗” are different glyph forms that represent “caress” in the Han Dynasty and before.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 153-165 [Abstract] ( 347 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1120KB] ( 638 )
166 Qu Wensheng, Wang Zizheng
Treaty of Tordesillas and the Shaping of the Global Order: Origin of the Modern International Law Hot!
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas, Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas, hereinafter the Treaty) signed and ratified by the governments of Portugal and Spain in 1494 brings everlasting and profound influences to the global order. It marks the starting point of the shaping of modern global order and provides foundations on which modern international law is based.The Tordesillas Line, a line of demarcation 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands dividing the non-Christian world between Castile and Portugal, distinct from the Papal Line, marks the first real attempt to demarcate the mainlands and islands in the world, thus is understood as the very beginning of the Western colonial empires to have an extra-territorial jurisdiction over the people and things in the world and to forge the modern global order.As an example of the Nomos der Erde, the Treaty was the first attempt in history to demarcate, divide and arrange all lands, the mainlands and islands, found and discovered already or to be found and discovered hereafter, in the world. It, also being the earliest attempt to coordinate the legal boundary with the geographical boundary, promoted people’s cognition and theory of the borders. The Treaty, which is more than a century earlier than the Peace of Westphalia, along with the legal practices between the Portuguese and the Spanish during the Age of Discovery, have already embodied some characters of modern international law. Guided by the Treaty, the Europeans managed to adjust international relations with the non-European countries using the Europe-centered international law rules for the first time. The examples aforesaid offered the origin of thoughts and the guidance of conducts to the foundation of the System of Westphalia and the order of modern European international law system. The Treaty’s being used to regulate over the terra Antarctica also appears to be in need of examination.As an example of the Nomos der Ozean, the Treaty celebrates not only the inauguration of a centuries-old contest among Western colonial empires’ discourse over the ocean but also marks a great leap of legal thoughts and ocean philosophy. In today’s UNCLS, concepts like the right of innocent passage and the EEZ can find their origins of thoughts in the Treaty.As a pivotal treaty of pre-modern international law, the Treaty acts as an important practice of discourse. Portugal and Spain framed the first global order of discourse with the Bulls and treaties. The aforementioned order of discourse, while helped the shaping of the first global empires in history, also planted concepts such as “two hemispheres” and “East and West” in people’s minds. In the meantime, it became a source of the theory of hierarchy of civilizations.As an inchoate bilateral treaty, limitations in the text of the Treaty, the uncertainty of the location of the Tordesillas Line and the undefined way of delivery of land in particular need to be noticed. These details were later utilized as excuses by the contracting parties to violate the Treaty itself, and the emerging European powers also took advantage of those vague expressions as breakthroughs of the global order forged by the Iberian Countries. Portugal and Spain had agreed to ask the Pope to sanction any violation of the Treaty by the two sides, only to find that the influence of the Holy See declines over time in the secular affairs, and the Tordesillas global order faces its apparent destiny of reshaping.Using analysis of “Discourse-Power”, this article places the Treaty in the framework of pre-modern international law to dissect the Papal Bulls and their mechanism of effect, to discuss the discourse and social practices of modern international law including nomos and hierarchy of civilizations within the text of the Treaty, to unveil the impact of the Treaty on the foundation of the modern global order, and to investigate the ideological basis of the modern international law.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 166-181 [Abstract] ( 567 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 908KB] ( 518 )
182 Chen Luxi
Rethinking on the Early Development in American Educational Historiography Hot!
Current academic understandings of the early development of American educational historiography are not adequate and require clarification. Early historical writings on American education had a typical “family history” style pioneered by Ellwood P. Cubberley. The subsequent work of Bernard Bailyn and Lawrence A. Cremin in the 1960s and 1970s saw the framework of “moderate revisionism” replacing the earlier tradition with a broad and universally connected civilization narrative writing style, marking the emergence of a “new American educational historiography”. The main cause of academic misunderstandings is that there has been a one-sided emphasis on the importance of Cubberley and Cremin’s criticisms of the “family history” writing tradition, which has failed to give full considerations to other works in the development of this historiography, particularly the numerous early works. This bias also illustrates that, intentionally or otherwise, linear historical views and “présentiste” exist in the research of American educational historiography in China, and this requires careful consideration. Based on the Western historical writing tradition and systematic analysis of numerous works, this study once again reviews the early development of American educational historiography to provide a new understanding of its development in the colonial period. Influenced by writings on Christianity in the colonial period and the nationalist documentation of early American colonial history, American education historians developed a style that was dominated by a stream of broad narratives on civilization called the “Whig school”. However, under the influence of German historicism and American pragmatism in the late 19th Century, two styles emerged. Inspired by the scientificization of American history, one path adopted historicism from Germany and maintained the “civilization narrative”. The other path, motivated by a push for the professionalization of American teacher education, turned against the “textbookization” of American educational history writing. Although the writings by educational historians reflected the acute demand for teacher education professionalization, it led to instrumentalism, rebelling against the previous writing traditions. This “rebellion” was discarded after a systematic review by professional historians in the 1950s and 1960s. Following this “moderate revisionist” criticism of the pragmatism of historical writing, American educational historiography returned to a framework of broad narratives on civilization, which simultaneously marked the full completion of the professionalization of American educational historiography.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 182-195 [Abstract] ( 417 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 814KB] ( 363 )
196 Ning Yumei, Lin Ka
Stages of Development in Charity Researches in China: A Keywords Analysis of the Literature Hot!
An important issue faced by charity researches today concerns how to achieve a pertinent understanding of the phased development process and characteristics of China’s charity studies. Existing researches made on the issue mainly attempted to reveal the features of this process in regard to the motivation of charity behaviors and relations among the agents and the systems. However, the major problems of these efforts are overwhelmed by the excessive subjectivity in the division of development phases, lack of empirical support, and shadowed with their grand historical perspectives. Given such limitations, the present study aims at investigating the development with its phases and features by reviewing research literature in relation with the historical events of this process. A bulk of literature on charity issues is presented with interpretations on the significant meaning of these events in this evolution.Based on frequency analysis and cluster analysis of the keywords of the 1,774 academic papers indexed in CNKI between 1993 and 2019, we conclude with three phases of development for the enterprise of charity in China. The first phase of research (1993-2007) placed great emphasis on the system development, which reflects the strength of the state-promoted nature of the Chinese philanthropy. The second phase (2008-2015) laid stress on the need of transparency, credibility and supervision for the operation of the charity system. People began to have increasingly higher requirements regarding the standardization, systemization and legalization of charity, while charity on the whole has evolved from government-administration affairs to the field of public affairs with mass engagement. The current phase (from 2016 onward) is the third stage of evolution that strengthens the efforts of raising standardization and legalization of charity activities, promoted by the newly published China’s Charity Law, and the subjects of research are extended to issues of social governance of charity activities, online platform of charity, and philanthropy, etc.Meanwhile, this study also demonstrates the effectiveness of adopting the methods of literature research into charity-related issues, which is able to supply empirical grounds and evidences to reveal the changes and trends in the field. For instance, we compare the topic clusters based on the calculation of the used keywords. As the general trend of this three-phrase development charity research is mainly centered on three major issues, namely, charity systems, charitable organizations, and corporate charity, less concerns are given to the key issues of philanthropy ethnics, voluntary behaviors and online charity at the individual and group levels. The situations indicate some shortcomings in the academic climate for the narrow scope of concerning but giving preferences in organizational and institutional aspects of charity activities.Still, the evolutionary process of charity researches echo with the development process of charity action in China, but reflect the underlying changes in the Chinese philanthropy in multiple dimensions (such as charitable behaviors, relationship among charity agents and charity systems across different historical periods and social backgrounds). This development process highlights the transition from “government-administrated charity” to “charity of public engagement”, as a result of complex interactions between the government and multiple social subjects, while also reflecting some of the objective requirements for charity development posed by the Internet ear. It is anticipated that in the next phase of development, charity research will see its scope and research issues further extended, and the research content will keep updated with the times.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 196-207 [Abstract] ( 395 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3551KB] ( 426 )
208 Shen Qitaisong, Cai Ning
A Research on the Mechanism of Local Government Promoting Corporate Social Responsibility: A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) Study Based on Zhejiang County (City, District) Level Data Hot!
With the continuous publicity of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the widespread practice of the “Two Mountains Theory” throughout China, the promotion of a sustainable economic and social development rather than a single pursuit of GDP has become an important goal of policy innovation of the central government and local governments. More and more attention has been paid to corporate social responsibility (CSR). However, CSR is an “imported” concept that originated in the West. Even though it has been gradually publicized, there is still the problem of cognitive legitimacy that cannot be quickly accepted by the grassroots in the short term. There may also be operational difficulties that the existing government structure and department functions cannot accurately support. In reality, the strength of the local governments in supporting and promoting CSR reflects very strong regional differences. Therefore, systematically revealing the facilitating conditions and occurrence mechanism for promoting CSR by local governments, explaining the differences in actions between different regions, and deciphering the asynchrony between macro-logic and micro-practice should become important issues for researchers in related fields. Based on that, this study integrates government innovation influencing factors, CSR driving mechanisms and stakeholder theories, and relies on fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) based on a histomorphological perspective to make an exploratory analysis on the promotion conditions and occurrence mechanism of local governments’ promoting CSR, using quantitative data from 89 counties (districts and cities) in Zhejiang province. This research concludes four types of CSR promotion, namely, the external environment stimulation type, the government condition complete type, the internal and external factors coupling type and the innovation continuous emerging type. Further more, this research summarizes: (1) Six factors, including the level of export-oriented economy, regional innovation capabilities, government innovation experience, government work efficiency, government transparency, and officials’ innovation enthusiasm, may have a substantial impact on the government’s promotion of corporate social responsibility. But there are no specific conditions that necessarily work; (2) In the process of government innovation, there are multiple mechanisms such as environmental pressure, resource dependence, organizational learning, and active action. More attention should be paid to the group effects of conditional elements rather than the effect of a single element; (3) From a realistic point of view, it is not common to expect the model of government innovation to be derived after the internal conditions are fully met. Three scenarios are more likely to occur, which are the strategic response to external stimuli, the continuous exploration after first trial, and the homeopathy under internal and external coupling. This research has the following potential theoretical innovations: (1) It advances the issue of the mechanism of the government to promote CSR, reveals the combination of conditions and emergence patterns that induce local governments to promote CSR, and makes a deeper exploration to the occurrence process of CSR from the perspective of institutional view; (2) This paper changes the idea of empirical analysis of local government innovation motivation from the perspective of single variable net effect, and puts forward an integrated mode of economic conditions, institutional environment and officials’ motivation, which provides an empirical evidence for the existing theoretical research; (3) This study not only changes the mindset of considering local governments as a unified model and highlights the non-synchronicity between macro logic and micro reality, but also compensates for the lack of attention to grassroots reality below the municipal level in previous related studies; (4) This research helps to better analyze the complexity of the government innovation process, and to a certain extent realizes the dialogue between the two disciplines of public management and business management.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 208-223 [Abstract] ( 436 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 804KB] ( 582 )
224 Yang Yixin
A Study on the Longevity Risk of the Personal Account of Basic Pension Insurance for Employees and Its Estimation Hot!
Since 1997, the basic pension insurance for employees in China has followed the model of “social pooling and personal accounts”. After more than 20 years of operation, the number of beneficiaries has continued to expand, and the level of benefits has increased year by year, which has effectively guaranteed the basic livelihood of retirees. But at the same time, we need to note that the financial sustainability of employee basic pension insurance has begun to arouse the attention of the whole society. Especially in recent years, China’s problem of population aging has been growing, the average life expectancy has continued to increase, and the employee’s basic pension insurance dependency ratio has been decreasing year by year. The pay-as-you-go pension insurance system is facing challenges. The original intention of setting up personal accounts was to make up for the inadequacies of the pay-as-you-go model for the aging population, and to resolve longevity risks through a model of fund accumulation. Therefore, it is necessary to re-evaluate the policy design and practical operation effects of the basic pension insurance personal accounts for employees, especially the role it played in dealing with longevity risks. This paper starts from the design of the personal account system of basic pension insurance for Chinese employees and systematically expounds the formation and transmission mechanism of longevity risks for personal accounts. The so-called longevity risk refers to the financial risk of the fund caused by the inconsistency between the actual lifespan of the insured group and the life expectancy set by the mechanism design of current personal account. In the event of personal account longevity risk, the “risk source” is mainly a series of flaws in the design of the personal account system. The “risk transmission path” is mainly due to such factors as life span elongation and the personal account foundations not being able to pay off. “Risk amplification station” is mainly in the operation of the system, when a series of policies have led to accelerated consumption of personal account deposits. We have established an actuarial model that characterizes the longevity risk of personal accounts leading to fund risk. Taking a “standard insured person” as the object of analysis, with the aid of actuarial analysis methods, it is estimated that when the fund’s investment return rate is 4%, the personal account fund can pay up to the age of 74 for the insured person who retires at the age of 60. The insured person of 75 or older will be paid out of the pooling fund for the personal account treatment. When the fund’s investment return rate is 8%, the personal account fund can pay until the age of 84. The longevity risk of personal accounts arises from the combined effect of multiple reasons. This paper further describes the effects of policy adjustment factors and demographic environment factors on the longevity risk of personal accounts. The main conclusions are: (1) If the actual investment return rate of the fund is 8% and the bookkeeping interest rate is 4%, the consumption of personal account fund balance will be greatly accelerated, and the time when personal account balance is exhausted will be advanced from 75 to 65. (2) If the basic pension and the personal account pension are adjusted together, the time when the savings in the personal account are exhausted will be advanced from the age of 75 to 71. (3) In accordance with the trend of current population aging, other factors aside, the growth of the personal account fund gap is relatively stable. (4) If the above factors are combined, the personal account fund gap will increase from 661.922 billion yuan in 2020 to 3,090.702 billion yuan in 2035, and the ratio of the gap to basic pension expenditure will rise from 17.4% in 2020 to 22.9% in 2035. This article proposes the following policy measures to deal with the longevity risks of personal accounts: (1) Establish a reasonable method for adjusting the interest rate of personal accounts. (2) Strictly control the increase in personal account pension standards. (3) Establish a dynamic adjustment mechanism of the number of months for personal account payment in accordance with age, gender and time. In the era of longevity, improving the personal account system will better promote the sustainable operation of the basic pension insurance for employees.
2021 Vol. 51 (3): 224-240 [Abstract] ( 494 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1250KB] ( 836 )
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