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JOURNAL OF ZHEJIANG UNIVERSITY 2021 Vol.51 Number 1
2021, Vol.51 Num.1
Online: 2021-01-10

Article
 
Article
1
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 1- [Abstract] ( 229 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 707KB] ( 434 )
5 Wu Zhaohui
The Interaction of Diversified Economic Spaces and High-quality Development of Regional Integration Driven by Digital Governance Hot!
The new development stage witnesses the componentization of data and digitization of social economy. The digital revolution accelerates the expansion of economic activities into diversified economic spaces. Digital governance is essential to the promotion of regional integration under the new development concept. On the systematic, integrated, coordinated, intelligent development of regional integration, this paper first analyzes the digital governance system and governance capacity. It then proposes the path to promote regional integration from planning, city brain, city cluster security control, central city decision-making system, and scenario development of small and medium cities. At last, it calls for quickened digitization in the promotion of regional integration in terms of building digital government, developing digital economy, driving innovation with data and forming high-quality digital society.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 5-9 [Abstract] ( 428 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 701KB] ( 802 )
10 Kang Xiaoqiang
Discussion on the Essential Characteristics of the Socialist System with Chinese Characteristics Hot!
The socialist system with Chinese characteristics has become the most direct and distinctive sign of socialism with Chinese characteristics. To have a command of the essential characteristics of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, the following two questions should be especially focused on: On the one hand,as the realization form of socialism system in contemporary China, the socialist system with Chinese characteristics cannot deviate from the development orientation of socialism, the aspects in which the basic principles of scientific socialism continued and the unique qualitative stipulations of the socialist system are reflected; on the other hand, compared with the traditional socialist “Soviet model” and the modern capitalist model, what are the new and different features of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics? Considering the above two points, the essential characteristics of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics are mainly reflected in the following four aspects. First, achieving effective leadership of “all work” with the Communist Party of China as the “central structure” from the direction perspective. The leadership of the Communist Party reflects the unique attributes of the national system of the socialist country. The leadership of the Communist Party of China is the “root” of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, the basic prerequisite and fundamental guarantee for the realization of China’s modernization, which plays a positive role in comprehensively and deeply “embedding” the national governance structure system. Second, adhering to the “people-centered” value orientation from the standpoint perspective. “People-centered” value can not only fully represent the will of the people, gather people’s wisdom extensively, and effectively safeguard the people’s interests, but also emphasize the maximum guarantee of the people’s dominant role and value in the country, which fundamentally determines and confirms the legitimacy of the system and provides a continuous source of vitality and strength support for stimulating the advantages and superiority of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics. Third, adhering to the organic integration of “keeping good aspects” and “innovation” from the strategic perspective. The socialist system with Chinese characteristics not only adheres to the basic principles of scientific socialism, but also develops basic ideas and theories of scientific socialism, and criticizes and surpasses the capitalist society, which is a great creation in the civilization history of human system, especially in the civilization history of political system. Furthermore, it demonstrates the characteristics of “innovation” and reflects the organic combination of “keeping good aspects” and “innovation”. Fourth, it reflects the ductility from the structural perspective. In practice, the socialist system with Chinese characteristics has expanded from the “three-in-one” structural form — “fundamental system, basic system, specific system” to the “four-in-one” — “fundamental system, basic system, important system, specific system”, which shows that it has a high degree of openness, tolerance, adaptability, coordination and balance. Having a comprehensive command of the essential characteristics of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics is of great significance for a deep understanding of the internal structure of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the nature of the socialist state system, and the new development of civilization of human system.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 10-21 [Abstract] ( 790 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1209KB] ( 948 )
22 Qian Wenrong, Guo Xiaolin, Wang Dazhe
The Implementation Mechanism of Rural Effective Governance: A Case Study Based on the Village Level Housing Rehabilitation Program Hot!
The realization of governance effectiveness is based on finding the logical starting point of governance that suits the specific organizational environment. In view of the practical form, rural governance structure can be divided into the types of “top-down” and “bottom-up” governance. In specific, “top-down” governance refers to the process that grassroots leaders or village cadres promote the implementation of national policies through preaching and persuasion so as to motivate villagers’ participation into rural governance. “Bottom-up” governance mainly indicates the process that the “village governance directors” represented by the two village committees actively determine the governance objectives at different stages by combining with the village’s internal needs so as to independently guide the villagers to handle the supply of rural public goods and complete the construction of “a beautiful village”.Although existing researches on the effectiveness of rural governance have made some contributions to the regional experience summary and the framework thinking of governance elements, there is still some room for improving the study of the interactive relationship between multiple governance subjects in under urban-rural joint governance. By means of breaking through the independent governance unit of village, this paper incorporates the interaction among the grassroots governments, the village committee and the villagers into a diachronic research framework through constructing an evolutionary game model featured with urban-rural interaction characteristics, so as to look into the “black box” during interaction among different subjects.Based on analyzing the micro-mechanism of the effectiveness of rural governance, this paper answers the two questions including whether and how ordinary villages can achieve the effective rural governance. According to the research, the relatively scarce governance resources have always been an important factor affecting the effectiveness of rural governance. For this reason, ordinary villages can explore ways to enrich village governance resources by constructing governance structure suitable for village-level fields. This arrangement of effective governance structures can be achieved from grassroots government establishment of effective punishment and incentive mechanisms, the introduction of high-quality market resources, and reshaping of the relationship between village governance directors and villagers. The case study and the numerical simulation of evolutionary games found that as marketization, contractualization, and individualization are becoming more prominent in rural governance structure, the resource interaction between the involved subjects is the main factor restricting the effectiveness of rural governance. During the interaction, the differentiated constraints of grassroots governments are the key to narrow the “lagging interval” of village-level organizations’ mobilization strategies, and the village governance director’s initiative mobilization is the endogenous developing force for effective rural governance.At this stage, it is essential to establish a punishment and incentive mechanism between the grass-roots government, village-level organizations, and villagers, and establish a “coordination and balance” relationship between the three subjects in the national vertical governance system. Besides, village governance leaders should behave themselves, enrich the channels for improving village governance resources, mobilize market resources, strengthen villagers’ collective consciousness and local cultural identity, improve their capabilities, and achieve effective internal regulation of villages. Through the improvement of the governance structure under the framework of urban-rural co-governance, the coordination of different interests, the construction of an incentive mechanism for the active participation of multiple subjects, and the improvement of the endogenous development capacity of the villages, therefore, rural governance could achieve effective goals ultimately.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 22-35 [Abstract] ( 416 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1507KB] ( 520 )
36 Li Lili, Yu Jian, Zhang Zhonggen
Human Capital Investment in Rural China: Policy Review and Outlook Based on Content Analysis of Central Document No. 1 Hot!
The key to realizing rural revitalization is to revitalize talents, which shows that investing in rural human capital is an important responsibility of the government. However, there is no domestic literature that systematically reviews the rural human capital investment policies. In addition, the existing studies on the guidance and recommendations for the government to promote rural human capital investment are not systematic, and they also lack comprehensive consideration of the staged background and the latest situation. In order to bridge these gaps in the literature, this study explores the evolution trends and major adjustments of China’s rural human capital investment policies, based on the “Central Document No.1” from 2004 to 2020, and proposes possible future policy trends, which will help enrich and expand research in this field from the perspective of policy analysis, and provide a reference for the government to make policy formulations. Specifically, our study innovatively uses the policy content analysis method that can simultaneously reflect policy breadth, policy intensity, and policy adjustments, conducting the analysis in terms of the number of policy items, the number of keywords, the content of keywords, the intensity of policy implementation, and financial support.Given the characteristics of rural China, the study constructs an analytical framework based on the modern human capital theory to carry out policy researches on rural human capital investment in the Central Document No.1. The basic way for the government to improve human capital in rural areas can be summarized in five aspects: medical and health care, formal education, vocational skills training, the return of migrants, and the introduction of professionals. In terms of time, the policy of “Agriculture, Rural areas, and Farmers” has undergone a phased transition from the construction of a new socialist countryside to a rural revitalization strategy over the past ten years. In view of this, the study divides the period of 2004-2020 into two periods, 2004-2012 and 2013-2020, as marked out by the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, and compares the phased changes in the rural human capital investment policies.The study finds that the central government investment in rural human capital is generally increasing, and the policy content is gradually systematized, forming a development trend that promotes a balanced urban and rural development from top to bottom, and combines rural cultivation of internal talents with the introduction of external talents. In addition, this policy evolution can accurately reflect the development trends of human capital investment in rural China, and provide a correct ideological guidance and path reference for the development of rural human capital investment practices. However, the corresponding financial support investment has shown a downward trend. We also found that the key policy adjustments include strengthening the construction of rural medical talents, promoting urban and rural coordination of social medical insurance, comprehensively improving rural compulsory education, in-depth development of farmers’ vocational skills training, supporting migrant workers returning to their hometowns to start businesses, and accelerating the establishment of a rural talents introduction mechanism. In view of the above, we believe that China’s future rural human capital investment policies should focus on these aspects, including comprehensively promoting the integration of urban and rural residents’ medical insurance systems, accelerating the integration of urban and rural education, using information technology to enhance rural human capital, improving rural entrepreneurship and innovation support service systems, establishing a long-term mechanism for the introduction of rural talents, and strengthening the protection of rural human capital investment. Thus, the top-level design of rural human capital investment policies can meet the needs of current and future rural revitalization strategies.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 36-50 [Abstract] ( 399 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1396KB] ( 517 )
51 Zheng Chunyan
The Reforming Government and the Rule of Administrative Law Hot!

Unlike stable formulas, the model of rule of law keeps changing along with science and technology development, economic transformation, as well as cultural blending. The rule of administrative law, to be more specific, presents its dynamics towards the functions of administration with the shift of national mission. The path of history reveals how the rule of administrative law internally responds to the national mission. With this clue, it helps to understand the emergence, development, and transformation of administrative law in China when chasing back the changing course of the rule of administrative law. The history of reform and development is also the transformation of the rule of administrative law in China in the past 40 years. With the method of policy tracking analysis, China’s administrative reform can be divided into four stages, which exactly corresponds to four transformations of administrative law.In the first stage, the reform of “simpler administration”, intended to simplify staff, abolish or merge institutions. In order to consolidate the effectiveness of the reform of this stage, the National People’s Congress and its standing committee passed a series of acts of organizations. Hence, the study of administrative law started to thrive. In this stage, the pursuit of clear departmental power and responsibility and higher administrative efficiency could be traced in academic works. For an instance, the expression of the division of work and efficiency in administrative management can be found in specific argumentations in administrative law research.In the second stage, the reform of “functional transformation”, both the clear concept of the socialist market system and the reform of administrative functions based on system transformation had put forward new challenges to the administrative law in China. Overseas basic theories and system design, dominated by the idea of power control, became a shared perception in the field of administrative law in China. The context of law-based administration presented a more obvious stance of right protection. The power control idea of administrative law has been deeply rooted and administrative law system based on administrative actions has been shaped.In the third stage, the reform of “public service” expanded the forms of administrative activities. Comprehensive and flexible administrative functions are required by the socialist market economy in China. Especially, the concept of service-oriented government, put forward in The Report on the Work of the Government 2005 by the State Council, set the tone for the later governmental innovative management which integrates management with service. The argument among management theory, power control theory and balance theory stimulated the first systematical discussion on the basic theory of administrative law in the circles in China. There from, the administration turned to “responsive model” from “repressive model”. The reform of administrative functions reconciled the differences on the true value of administrative law among scholars, whose works later focused on the new administrative activities in the context of service-oriented administration.The fourth stage is the reform of national governance. The reform of the administrative approval system has become the key point of promoting national governance and realizing positive interaction among government, market and society. In the situation of such a co-governance, the legal effectiveness based on traditional representative democracy, legalization model built by the public bodies, as well as the discretion and its regulation have been reviewed. The method of utilizing the substantial rule of law to strengthen the legitimacy is preferred, while the study of new administrative law becomes a fresh development trend. Though, the development of rule of law in China is just on the rise, facing the same trend in the context of globalization and domestic administrative approval reform. An increasing amount of works in the field of administrative law, expressing the concern whether the rule of law in pure formalism can be the protector for the reform, are trying to explore the rule of law in substance, beyond the one in formalism, in ways such as seeking substantive consensus or justifying authority by the procedure.The history of the development of administrative law since 1978 has witnessed the shift of the theory system of administrative law, the change of the value in the field and the move to substantial rule of law, which is not only a struggle history of how Chinese administrative law scholars built the basic theory and academic discipline system, but also an interaction history of how administrative law responded, interpreted and boosted the administrative reform. In the context of historical development, the study of public law must be rooted in the background of the country. Only by understanding and predicting the current and future government tasks can we develop the administrative rule of law in accordance with the national conditions through the method of legal dogmatic.

2021 Vol. 51 (1): 51-68 [Abstract] ( 431 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1627KB] ( 590 )
69 Liu Jingwei, Nie Aixuan
Modern Transformation of China’s Legal System of Standardization: On the Revision of the Standardization Law Hot!
With market-oriented reforms deepening since the reform and opening-up, the standardization system launched in China’s planned economy period has undergone major changes, one of them being the transformation of China’s legal system of standardization, marked by the revision of the Standardization Law in 2017. The transformation of China’s legal system of standardization is shown in the following four main aspects: (1) The standards have seen the return from technical regulations to technical specifications. Prior to the Standardization Law, standards were stipulated as technical regulations. The Standardization Law passed in 1988 deleted the stipulation and marked the beginning of the return. The reform of the standardization system in 2015, which aimed at integrating and streamlining mandatory (compulsory) standards, and optimizing recommended (recommendation) standards, furthered the return. The revision of the Standardization Law in 2017 limited mandatory (compulsory) standards merely to national standards (Guobiao standards/GB), while recommended (recommendation) standards covered industry and local standards, rendering the standards closer to its nature as technical specifications. (2) The standardization system has improved from hierarchical to equal. The hierarchy of standards is common in international standardization. China has adopted the same system, while there was, before the revision of the Standardization Law, another hierarchy among national standards, industry standards, local standards, and enterprise standards, in which they had different effectiveness in practice. The revision of the Standardization Law in 2017 limited mandatory (compulsory) national standards to a specific scope, and for other types of standards, their effectiveness tended to be equal in terms of legal status. (3) Standardization resource allocation has upgraded from government-leading to market-and-government-leading. The standardization system launched during the planned economy period of China basically featured in government-dominated standardization resource allocation. The revision of the Standardization Law changed that by clearly stipulating the status of enterprises and social groups as standardization subjects according to the requirements of the standardization system reform on the role of the market in allocating standardization resources, and establishing a standardization resource allocation system that places equal emphasis on both market and government. (4) The scope of standardization has expanded from the first, second and tertiary industries to social undertakings. With reform and opening up and the development of social economy, the scope of standardization has continued to expand. Before the revision of the Standardization Law, the main fields of standardization prescribed by law were agriculture, industry and service sectors (first, second and tertiary industries). The revision of the Standardization Law expands the scope to social undertakings and other fields, providing legal supports for standardization required in economic and social development.Standardization is a significant approach to the modernization of national governance. The revision of the Standardization Law in 2017 served as a response to the requirements of the standardization system reform of China, and the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity. This paper, by combining history and theory, examines the reform of China’s legal system of standardization in a broader context of the market-orient reform. It is a study on the main contents of the revision of the Standardization Law and its timeline, which is expected to be of great theoretical and practical importance for understanding China’s standardization law and the system.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 69-80 [Abstract] ( 350 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1151KB] ( 373 )
81 Wang Chunye
Deviation and Corrections in the System of Reviewing Normative Documents: A Sample of 907 Cases Hot!
Administrative Procedure Law has established a system of incidental review of normative documents, but in practice, there appears to be a problem of implementation deviation. Current research on the system of incidental review of normative documents is mostly limited to partial research, and it is difficult to reveal a complete picture of the system. This paper makes an overall evaluation of the implementation of the system using empirical methods, based on a research sample of 907 cases which have occurred since the implementation of the incidental review system. The following problems in the implementation of the system of incidental review of normative documents were found by the study: Firstly, due to the ambiguity and uncertainty of the meaning of “just cause”, the rigor of the standards for identifying normative documents and the strict standards for identifying the relationship between normative documents and administrative acts, most normative documents fail to proceed to the review process. For example, the 82.2% cases which occurred in 2015, the 55% cases in 2016, the 70% cases in 2017, and the 70.1% cases in 2018 did not proceed to review.Secondly, due to the lack of clarity of the review criteria, most of the normative documents were not considered illegal on the grounds that the normative documents did not contradict, conflict or violate the superior law. For example, only 4.6% cases in 2015, 1.1% cases in 2016, 2.5% cases in 2017 and 1.8% cases in 2018 were considered illegal. The above-mentioned problems have made the system of incidental review of normative documents almost useless, and have failed to realize the original intention of the system. From the point of view of strengthening the supervision of normative documents, the system of incidental review of normative documents should be revised as follows: Firstly, the court has an obligation to explain “just cause”. When the plaintiff brings an administrative action and if there are regulatory documents that may be subject to review, the court should explain to the plaintiff and the plaintiff will decide whether to initiate incidental review. The fact that the plaintiff has not made a request for review after the court’s explanation should be deemed to be unjustified by the plaintiff in order to urge the court to fulfill the obligation of interpretation in time and to solve the problem of ambiguity in the meaning of “just cause”. Secondly, normative documents should be classified and identified. It is proposed that the Supreme People’s Court and the Department of Justice jointly establish an administrative regulation database in response to the difficulty of distinguishing between administrative regulations and regulatory documents issued by the executive branch, the latter of which has the power to make regulations. The court should adopt a looser standard to identify non-regulatory documents as long as they are not obvious specific to administrative acts.Thirdly, the connection between the normative documents and administrative action is determined by the loose standard. So long as there is a certain connection between the normative document and the administrative act, the normative document should be regarded as the “basis” of the administrative act. And when there is a disagreement as to whether there is a link, it should be interpreted in favor of the plaintiff.Finally, the formulation standard for normative documents should be taken as the standard for the examination of normative documents. In the review of normative documents, the court should first examine whether there is a superior law in formulating the normative documents, and then examine whether the normative documents are stipulated in the scope of the superior law. If the normative document is not based on the superior law or beyond the scope of the superior law, the normative document is suspected of violating the law.In this sense, the criteria for reviewing normative documents should be more stringent.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 81-94 [Abstract] ( 378 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1299KB] ( 387 )
95 Wu Xiaobo, Xu Hongqi, Zhao Minchao, Tan Ziyan
The Impact of Entrepreneurial Team Gender Diversity on the Business Model Innovation: Moderating Effect of Team Task Characteristics Hot!
“Innovation and entrepreneurship” is not only one of the hotspots of China’s current social and economic development, but also an important topic in the field of academic research. For startups with relatively weak resources and capabilities, business model innovation as a new source of competitive advantage can help startups improve their performance. Therefore, it is particularly important to explore the driving factors of business model innovation of startups. Most of the previous researches on the mechanisms of business model innovation are based on the rational positioning school and the evolutionary school. They paid attention to the external factors driving business model innovation and ignore the proactive internal driving factors. This article is based on the cognitive school. From the perspective of managerial cognitive, this paper uses upper echelons theory to explore the impact of diversity of core entrepreneurial teams on business model innovation. In startups, as a type of team diversity, cognitive differences caused by gender diversity in entrepreneurial teams affect decision-making, and also lead to differences in leadership styles, information acquisition, and interpretation differences, which is important for business model innovation. Therefore, this study focuses on the impact of gender diversity on the innovation of business models in startups. Entrepreneurial enterprises have relatively weak resources and capabilities. In the task selection, dismantling, deployment and execution, the limited energy and attention distribution of the entrepreneurial team members need to be weighed to overcome the disadvantages of new entrants. Existing research shows that differences in team tasks not only affect the psychological behavior and cognition of leaders, but also affect the novelty and practicality of team creativity through different modes of communication, learning, and decision-making among team members, which in turn affects the novelty and practicality of team creativity. The entrepreneurial business model innovation has an impact. At the same time, because the entrepreneurial team is more flexible and proactive, the impact of the task differences of the entrepreneurial team will be more easily reflected in the operation and performance of the enterprise. However, the existing research on the business model of entrepreneurial enterprises pays less attention to the role of team tasks. Therefore, this study introduces the concept of team task characteristics to verify the impact of team task characteristics on the relationship between Gender diversity in entrepreneurial teams-business model innovation. In this article, we collected data from online and offline visits. We reviewed the situation of companies in various well-known startup parks and incubation platforms in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, and identified 841 startup companies that met the research standards. We randomly selected 400 companies as research samples and distributed questionnaires. Finally, we recovered 277 questionnaires with a recovery rate of 69.25%, of which 178 were valid samples. Taking 155 startups that meets the requirement of company age as a sample for analysis, the research results show that the higher the gender diversity in the startup team, the higher the novelty of the business model design of the startup. When the task interdependence is high, the positive relationship between the two will be weakened, and when the task complexity is high, the positive relationship between the two will be enhanced. The practical implication of this research for entrepreneurial enterprises mainly has the following two aspects: First, in the process of forming an entrepreneurial team, entrepreneurs can consciously recruit a certain proportion of heterosexual entrepreneurs to join the team, thereby obtaining a more reasonable team structure and to enhance the ability to innovate the business model innovation. Second, the design of team tasks also has an important impact on the innovation and capabilities of startups. When designing the team’s work tasks, the entrepreneurial team should consciously clarify the division of labor and reduce task interdependence to some extent. In teams with high task interdependence, pay attention to balancing the relationships within the team, consciously eliminate invalid conflicts, and improve team creativity and business model innovation capabilities; on the other hand, when facing more complex entrepreneurial tasks, more attention should be paid to the improvement of the team’s gender diversity, thereby enhancing the team’s innovation capacities.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 95-110 [Abstract] ( 400 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1374KB] ( 547 )
111 Du Jian1 Lu Jie1 Jin Yi Chang Xiaoran
Explaining the Cultural Distance Paradox in Establishment Mode Choice: the Moderating Effect of Attention

The establishment mode choice (M&A, merger and acquisitions, vs. greenfield investment) has always been one of the most prominent topics in the field of international research and practice. In the research on the antecedents of the decision-making of establishment mode, cultural distance has triggered much debate. The main theoretical frameworks used to explain the influence of cultural distance on the establishment mode choice like the transaction cost theory (TCE), the resource-based view (RBV), the institutional theory, the eclectic theory of international production (OLI paradigm), and the organizational learning theory have drawn conflicting conclusions on this issue. This phenomenon is called a “Cultural Distance Paradox”.In order to explain the inconclusive findings in previous studies, this article decomposes the influence of cultural distance on the choice between greenfield investments and M&A into a dual mechanism of internal and external risks, i.e.the upsurge in the cultural distance between the host country and the home country of a multinational company (MNC) will result in sharp increases of the risks of both external adaptation and internal integration faced by the MNC. Cross-border M&A’s are in the position to alleviate external risks because they help MNCs to acquire local knowledge and legitimacy in host countries. However, cross-cultural human resource management resulted from the diverse cultural backgrounds of the staff will make the integration of subsidiaries more difficult. On the contrary, MNCs which choose to make greenfield investments can easily replicate the organizational processes and management styles from a subsidiary to another, thus being able to manage subsidiaries in a more standardized manner and minimize the internal integration risks. However, they must put in more efforts to deal with the uncertainties outside the organization. Based on the above discussion, this paper proposes that from the perspective of attention the distribution of multinational companies’ attention to internal and external risks will determine their preference for greenfield investments and M&A’s when minimizing the overall uncertainties of cross-cultural investments.The attention-based view points out three principles of the distribution of executors’ attention.It affirms that the attention of an enterprise is determined by the internal and external environment of the organization, while how the firm interprets these contextual situations depends on its structural characteristics. Based on this framework, this paper establishes a corresponding theoretical model which proposesthat the distribution of the attention of the company’s decision-makers between internal and external risks depends on the internationalization strategy adopted by the company (the organization’s internal environment) and the dynamism of the host country (the organization’s external environment), which is further moderated by the type of organization (prospector or defender).Using the outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) data of Chinese MNCs in 2010-2012,we empirically verified the three-way interaction model and reached the following conclusions: (1) When the MNC implements a globalization strategy, the higher the cultural distance is, the more likely it will adopt the greenfield investment. (2) When the market environment in the host country is highly dynamic, the higher the cultural distance is, the more likely the MNC will adopt M&A. (3) When the MNC is a prospector, the moderation effect of internationalization strategy will diminish, (4)but the moderation effect of market dynamism in the host country will be enhanced.This study introduces the attention-based view to explain the mechanism of how cultural distance influences establishment mode choice, cracking the “cultural distance paradox” by deconstructing the decision-making process on a micro level. It shows that the influence of cultural distance on overseas investment establishment mode is moderated by the internal and external context of the firm. There also exists a moderated moderation of organization type on the relationship between cultural distance and the choice between greenfield investments vs. M&A. This study provides some implications for Chinese firms whichlack international experiences on how to make establishment mode choice when entering a culturally distant country.

2021 Vol. 51 (1): 111-128 [Abstract] ( 380 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 798KB] ( 412 )
129 Tao Yunqing, Cao Yuyang, Zhang Jinlin, Zou Kai
The Impact of Digital Finance on Entrepreneurship: Evidences from Regional and National CFPS Hot!
Digital finance refers to a series of changes brought about by the application of digital technology in the financial field. The current digital financial revolution is particularly special in two points. First, many changes have occurred outside the financial industry. Start-ups and large mature technology companies are trying to subvert existing business models, launch new products and technologies, and provide new important means of competition. Second, the application and introduction of the above-mentioned changes in the financial industry are faster than ever before, and the fit between finance and the real economy is constantly deepening. In recent years, the rapid advance of digital finance has attracted considerable attention within the finance industry and is considered to have a profound impact on entrepreneurship.Yet, despite the widespread interest in digital finance, little is currently known about exactly how it will impact entrepreneurship. Taking China as an example, based on the 2011-2018 provincial panel data and the 2018 CFPS data, we investigate the impact of digital finance on entrepreneurship to show the following results. (1) Digital finance has significantly promoted regional entrepreneurship, which is mainly reflected in the two dimensions of the coverage/depth of digital finance. (2) Our findings are particularly pronounced in provinces with low urbanization rates, in provinces with low government intervention, and in provinces with high material capital. (3) We find that the impact of digital finance on entrepreneurship has a threshold effect. After exceeding a certain threshold, digital finance plays a stronger role in promoting entrepreneurship. (4) The direct reason why digital finance promotes regional entrepreneurship is that it promotes family entrepreneurship.Combined with empirical conclusions, this paper proposes the following policy implications: First of all, policy authorities should vigorously support and optimize the construction of the financial infrastructure to improve coverage and popularize financial knowledge so as to increase the demand for financial services from the demander side and to better stimulate regional entrepreneurship. At the same time, government departments and financial institutions should also pay attention to “digital divide” and other issues when looking at digital support services, so as to avoid digital technology becoming the booster of financial exclusion, which is not conducive to regional entrepreneurship. Secondly, it is necessary to implement policies in accordance with local conditions. Provinces with low urbanization rate have late-mover advantages, provinces with high material capital have natural financial resource advantages, provinces with low government intervention have financial innovation power, and digital finance plays a role in these provinces. Thirdly, there is an optimal matching state between digital finance and regional entrepreneurship, so the influence of digital finance on entrepreneurship should be viewed dialectically to prevent digital finance from becoming a double-edged sword for regional entrepreneurship. Finally, digital finance is of great significance to family entrepreneurship, which may be a channel to enhance family wealth.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 129-144 [Abstract] ( 482 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1336KB] ( 535 )
145 Pang Xuequan, Fang Fang
From Ancient to Modern Tourism in China: Changes in Connotations Between Lüyou and Woyou as a Key to Understanding Developments Hot!
An extensive literature on ancient tourism, focusing on the history of tourism as well as tourism culture, economics, and geography, is now widely available, but the significance of these researches has always been problematic: lacking a clear connection with modern tourism, the effectiveness of ancient tourism studies appears limited. Our approach to challenging this status quo can be summarized into three questions: Why do we need to study the meaning of tourism in ancient Chinese culture? Why is tourism, as practiced in contemporary China, not a straightforward inheritance of ancient Chinese tourism, so that the internal logic of its development is chaotic and research meanings disconnected? And how can we connect the paths between ancient Chinese culture and the philosophy of contemporary tourism?Starting with an understanding of how connotations of the character “you” (游)have formed and changed over time, this paper explores the synchronicity and chronological connotations of “lüyou” (旅游) in ancient Chinese culture. In the synchronic form, lüyou retains the philosophical and aesthetic meaning of “you”. In the chronological state, there is a connection and difference between tourism and “woyou” (卧游) that has formed through “wo” (卧). As opposed to “wo”, where one does not leave the house, “lü” refers to leaving the residence. From the perspective of linguistic semiotics, woyou has the function of a link throughout the transformation of ancient Chinese tourism into modern tourism.In a word, modern tourism is not a direct inheritance of ancient tourism, nor should it simply be regarded as the superficialization of ancient tourism. The richness of the connotations of tourism concepts gradually changes with the generation and development of meaning within the same synchronic characteristics and diachronicity of differences. During the Tsung Ping period of the Southern Song Dynasty, the practice of woyou took form. In the late Ming Dynasty, tourism and woyou continued to develop, interacting and integrating. The integration of lüyou and woyou helped develop a modern tourism that combines the intrinsic motivations of the subject and the external motivations driven by information. At the same time, woyou has become a tourism imaginary integrated into modern tourism practice and the tourism experience. Such an understanding not only makes the distinction between ancient Chinese tourism and contemporary tourism characteristics clear and rigorous, but also links the relationship between ancient Chinese culture and modern tourism and, further more, makes the integration of far-reaching Chinese cultural perspectives in the study of tourism possible.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 145-154 [Abstract] ( 315 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1139KB] ( 383 )
155 Fan Bocheng
A Man with Lofty Ideals Never Rushes to Die Unnecessarily: The Confucian Idea of "Keeping to One's Official Duties" Hot!

In Mencius, “a man with lofty ideals never forgets that his death may be in a ditch, and a man of valor never forgets that he may lose his head” has long been paraphrased as “to sacrifice one’s life for the sake of righteousness” since the Eastern Han Dynasty. However, only when one “forgets about his death” can he “sacrifice his life for the sake of righteousness”. Instead, if he “never forgets about his death”, he would “prefer his life to righteousness”. According to the context, Mencius here speaks against Chen Dai’s viewpoint that “to bend one foot of something to straighten eight feet of it”, in other words, “to sacrifice minor principles for greater gains”. In a similar context, it is also stated by Confucius as “keeping to the Tao is not as good a thing as keeping to one’s official duties”. In Shuo Yuan, however, the same expression that “a man with lofty ideals never forgets that his death may be in a ditch” is strangely interpreted as the opposite words of the rule of “sacrificing one’s life for the sake of righteousness”. Moreover, Hanshi Waizhuan tells a story which has nothing to do with this rule. Here “a man of valor never forgets that he may lose his head” is used to describe those scholars who feel contented to live a simple and virtuous life and would not rush to pursue wealth with dishonor. In this sense, “忘” or “forget” in “a man with lofty ideals never forgets that his death may be in a ditch, and a man of valor never forgets that he may lose his head” is the interchangeable word of “妄”, thus transforming the sentence into “a man with lofty ideals never rushes to die unnecessarily in a ditch, and a man of valor never rushes to lose his head pointlessly”. In such case, the whole sentence highlights the significance of life and disvalues a death without a just cause. Therefore, from the standpoint of pre-Qin Confucian scholars, “attaching little importance to death” only embodies the courage of the man of meanness; rather, to value life and etiquette and to keep independent from gains, powers and popular opinions reveals the courage of the man of virtue.To judge that whether a man “sacrifices his life for the sake of righteousness” or he “attaches little importance to life and death” is to see whether he lives and dies in accordance with the ritual system. As the “righteousness” in the ritual era means a strict and highly fixed duty for social individuals, “the death for the sake of righteousness” could only be acknowledged when the official dies for “keeping to his duties”. Likewise, the death caused by wielding power beyond one’s official duty is regarded as the result of “the embezzlement of duty” or “the unnecessary death in the ditch”. Therefore, for those who die for their remonstrance, Bi Gan, both an imperial relative and a high-ranking official, is thought to sacrifice “for the sake of righteousness”, while Xie Ye, an official bearing a different surname and thus an outsider for the imperial clan, “dies unnecessarily”. As defined by early Confucians, the noble deaths of Xie Ye, Shi Yu and Zong Lu are nothing but the consequences of the meaningless and arrogant “embezzlement of duty”. More than that, their self-assumed loyalty and tragic ends cause greater damage to social rituals.The principle of “keeping to one’s official duties” allows retainers to safeguard the interests of their feudal lords but not to obey their monarch blindly, and thus serves as the foundation of the power balance and mutual respect between the monarch and subjects in the ritual system of the Zhou Dynasty. Therefore, the significance of Confucius’ sticking to the principle of “keeping to one’s official duties” far exceeds the value of subjects’ loyalty to the monarch or of their pursuit of Tao and righteousness. In the autocratic era after the Qin and Han dynasties, as individual duties stay no longer as closely differentiated as those in the ritual era, and as the connotations of “Tao” and “righteousness” become no longer subject to social rituals and consequently broadened with great uncertainty, and the standard of morality and ethics becomes different from that of the ritual era. As a result, the Confucians in the autocratic era deny that Confucius once said that “keeping to the Tao is not as good a thing as keeping to one’s official duties”; rather, they equate the principle of “keeping to one’s official duties” with the thought of being loyal to the monarch.The pre-Qin Confucianism achieves an excellent balance between the seemingly contradictory views that “to sacrifice one’s life for the sake of righteousness” and “to value one’s life so as to keep his official duties”. The idea of “a man with lofty ideals never rushes to die unnecessarily in a ditch” or “keeping to one’s official duties” serves to be a counterbalance to both Yang Zhu’s idea of “extreme egoism” and Mo Zi’s idea of “extreme altruism”. Without this mutual balance, denying “extreme altruism” would inevitably lead to a dominant “extreme egoism”. In consequence, the public would find it embarrassing to mention “egoism” and feel forced to advocate “altruism”. As far as the text is concerned, it is not difficult to perceive the interchangeability between “忘” and “妄”. The difficulty lies in the bold interpretation of “a man with lofty ideals never forgets that his death may be in a ditch” into “a man values his life and never rushes to die unnecessarily”, since such understanding would establish Mencius as a coward, which fails to meet the public expectation of Confucian morality or Confucian sages.

2021 Vol. 51 (1): 155-162 [Abstract] ( 395 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1041KB] ( 556 )
163 Feng Quangong
A Review of Translation Theories with Chinese Characteristics and Further Reflections Hot!
In the context of promoting our confidence in Chinese theories and cultures, it is of great importance and urgency to build translation theories with Chinese characteristics. As an integral part of humanities and social sciences, translation studies as a discipline should have its own cultural genes. Translation theories with Chinese characteristics refer to those that are based on the discursive resources in traditional Chinese philosophy, aesthetics, literary theories, painting theories, calligraphic theories, kongfu culture and so on. Updated and modernized traditional Chinese translation theories also belong to such a category.There have been debates on translation theories with Chinese characteristics between supporters and dissenters, but after extensive and in-depth learning from Western translation theories over the past decades, more and more supporters seem to have emerged in order to highlight their distinctive theoretical features. Considerable achievements have been made, such as compositional translatology put forward by Pan Wenguo, harmonizing heterogenesis translatology put forward by Wu Zhijie, Yi-Translatology by Chen Dongcheng, golden-mean framework for translating poetry by Zhang Junjie and so on. These are typical cases of translation theories with Chinese characteristics. As a huge project that has immense space for further development, it should follow an “internally-bound and externally-extended” principle to build translation theories with Chinese characteristics, which should make best use of Western theoretical resources at the same time. Specific methods for building such a kind of translation theories include direct transplanting, adapted transplanting, metaphorical isomorphism, terms mutually connected, diachronic changes, new wine in an old bottle, comparison between the East and West, etc., and as to which method or methods to be used, it depends on the specific research object and purpose.The widely-known translation standards of faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance (xin, da, ya), similarity in spirit (shensi), sublimation (huajing) also belong to the category of translation theories with Chinese characteristics, and so is the “pushing hands” of translation newly put forward by Martha P.Y.Cheung and enriched by other scholars. Other key terms and propositions in traditional Chinese philosophy and literary theories are still waiting to be further transplanted in translation studies, terms like Dao, qi (force or principle), cheng (honesty or sincerity), ben (root or original), he (harmony), xin (heart or mind), yunwei (flavor or charm), ziran (nature or natural), wenzhi (content and form, or flowery and simple), qingzhuo (clear and muddy), yinxiu (implicit and explicit), xushi (empty and real, or abstract and concrete), gangrou (solid and supple, or hard and soft), tongbian (unobstructed and flexible) and so on, and propositions like “Poetry expresses what is intently on the mind”, “Dao is governed by Nature”, “Qi is the dominant factor of literature”, “Rhetoric aims to be sincere” and so on. These time-honored terms and propositions deserve our efforts in integrating them into translation studies.It is the unavoidable responsibility of Chinese scholars to build translation theories with Chinese characteristics, which is considered a certain kind of cultural strategy by some scholars. Although the prospect is rather encouraging, some obstacles are still to be removed due to various kinds of objective restrictions, especially a lack of (young) scholars who are capable of such a task, or rather who are courageous and single-minded enough to shoulder such a task. Translation scholars in China should consciously draw nourishment from the profound heritage of Chinese culture and make best use of it in order to build a system of translation theories with Chinese characteristics. Only by ceaseless, down-to-earth efforts in building a batch of translation theories characteristic of Chinese culture and make them known to the Western world can we have our unique voice heard and win due respect in the arena of international translation studies.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 163-173 [Abstract] ( 462 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1142KB] ( 679 )
174 Hu Gengshen
On Creative Initiatives and Its Going Global of Eco-translatology Hot!
As a systematic study of the theoretical discourse from ecological perspectives in the field of translation studies, Eco-translatology is an emerging eco-paradigm of translation studies. It describes and interprets translation activities in terms of the ecological principles of eco-holism, traditional Eastern eco-wisdom, and “Translation as Adaptation and Selection”. Furthermore, Eco-translatology approaches the phenomenon of translation as a broadly conceived ecosystem in which the ideas of “Translation as Adaptation and Selection” and of translation as a “textual transplant” promoting “eco-balance” are integrated into an all-encompassing vision. Finally, Eco-translatology reinforces contextual uniqueness, emphasizing the deep embeddedness of texts, translations, and the human agents involved in their production and reception in their own habitus. It is particularly encouraging in this increasingly globalized world to see a new paradigm sourced from East Asian traditions, but with universal appeal and applications, that adds to the diversity and plurality of global translation studies.As is known to us, after the linguistic turn in translation studies in the mid-20th Century, and the cultural turn in the late 20th Century, translation studies appeared under a global depression at the turn of the 21st Century since people got lost in the post-postmodern myth and setbacks. What is the next for translation studies? On the basis of the author’s observation and prediction, an ecological paradigm in the field of translation studies is tentatively expounded ever since. We have presented an inner logic sequence chain from translation to Nature, which both conforms to the general law of epistemic evolution of human beings and serves as an internal mechanism signifying the direction to the ecological paradigm. Then, the proposition is rationalized by the trend of external social and academic developments, especially the sweeping of worldwide ecological waves. Following the global context, as another important promotion to the ecological paradigm, the author’s proposition is substantially bolstered by the studies in the international translation circles, as well as the practical trial performance of studies and applications concerning the Approach to Translation as Adaptation and Selection, which both resulted from the ecological context on the one hand, and in turn, may also dawn upon the ecological paradigm on the other. Its significance of the ecological paradigm could be foreseen that upon crossing over the stereotyped boundaries between social science and natural science, it not only helps transcend the “post-postmodern” myth and depression, but also helps return to the traditional Chinese cultural essence. Besides, an ecological paradigm in translation studies initiated in China has, for the first time, helped make a turn for the better, since in modern times “translation studies in Asia have always been developed under the manipulation of the Western norms”; and “Asia serves as a slow imitator of the West in translation studies”.Eco-translatology, started up at the beginning of the 21st century, has stepped up to its “adulthood” (2001-2021). Discussed in this paper are the four creative initiatives, including: (1) The Sequential Chain; (2) the Eco-paradigm shift in translation studies; (3) the ecological disposition of the text to trans-live and re-live; (4) the Neo-ecologism and its ecosophy of translation. At the same time, efforts have been strategically made to help promote the development of internationalizing Eco-translatology by breaking though the weak link of theorization, seizing the momentum of ecological weaves, taking geographical advantages of East-Asian locations, and making the best use of the circumstances, and the like. It is pointed out that the practices and explorations of internationalization of Eco-translatology may not only shed light on the translation studies in China, but also offer an example for other related disciplines or research areas in social sciences and the humanities in their efforts of going global.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 174-186 [Abstract] ( 748 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1295KB] ( 1035 )
187 He Shihai
On Qing Scholars’ Theory of Verse-Prose-Commonness Hot!
Verse and prose as two major literary forms have differed from each other since their birth, but the issue regarding the distinction between verse and prose is not discussed as a significant conceptual question until the Song Dynasty. The Ming literati inherited and continued this discussion: they examined the differences between verse and prose in terms of their stylistic dispositions, emphasizing the importance of observing the stylistic regulations of literary forms, arguing against using prose elements in verse writings, and thus bringing the criticism of stylistic distinctions to a climax. On the contrary, most of the Qing theorists believed that prose and verse share some common features. Those theorists probed into this issue by investigating the stylistic characteristics, origins, functions, objectives, art skills, aesthetic goals of both literary forms. They also applauded those who broke the dividing line between verse and prose and used prose elements in verse writing. Though these theories may not have originated from the Qing scholars, it is through the Qing scholars’ repeated efforts of theorization and discussion that they gradually prevailed over the theory of verse-prose-distinction, and turned into the mainstream literary thought. This turn is not a return to the ancients of literary ideas, or a manifestation of conceptual degradation, that is, going back to the Pre-Qin and Han Periods when literary production was not yet independent and literary forms were not clearly formulated. As a matter of fact, it is some new elements, which are not available in early periods that helped bring about the change of the theories of criticism. Specifically, it refers to the background of literary history that the long-standing discussion about the superiority of Tang or Song poetry and the continuous improvements of the status of the Song poetry that made the difference. Tang poetry, with all its unrivaled accomplishments, is labeled as top model of verse writing. However, theoretically, this model is established by the way of stylistic criticism, identifying stylistic characteristics, distinguishing between orthodox and alternative styles and discriminating literary works hierarchically. Accordingly, since the Song Dynasty, scholars arguing for strict differences between verse and prose were generally steadfast followers of the Tang poetry. They argued against using prose elements in verse writing, and depreciated and even went so far as to drastically deny the values of the Song poetry. While those who advocated the commonness of verse and prose were generally dissatisfied at the bias of the Tang poetry followers, on the basis of the theory that verse and prose have some commonality connotatively and technically, they were in favor of breaking the line between verse and poetry, and regarded the value and status of the Song poetry as positive. In other words, the core issue of the Tang-Song debate is whether to emphasize the distinction, or to seek the commonness between verse and prose. This is also a touchstone of poetical standpoint for a scholar. During the period of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the followers of the Tang poetry were generally criticized for their narrow-mindedness and inadequacy in theory and formalistic practice of imitating ancient writings. Song poetics now became a vogue. Thus, in this background, not just the Song advocators, the Tang followers also, to a certain extent, accepted the Song poetry and agreed with using prose elements in verse writing. And that is the main reason why the theory of Verse-Prose-Commonness could prevail over that of Verse-Prose-Distinction in the Qing Dynasty. Besides, the academic atmosphere in the Qing Dynasty is generally filled with erudition and against sectarianism, which allowed scholars to be more broad-minded to accept the changes of literary criticism and the beauty of heterogeneous writings. And the expression of this academic atmosphere and ideological change in the relationship between verse and prose indicates that the Qing scholars were able to see the distinction while they paid more attention to the commonness and the connection between verse and prose, with the aim of breaking the barriers and making full use of the advantages of different literary forms, which infused new vigor into the highly mature art of poetry. These factors also promoted the popularity of the theory of Verse-prose-Commonness in the Qing Dynasty.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 187-199 [Abstract] ( 348 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1429KB] ( 401 )
200 Guo Jian
A Textual Research on the Author, Remarks and Value of the Manuscript of Annotations of Journey to the West in the Qing Dynasty Hot!
Annotations of Journey to the West (Xiyouji Ji) is one of the seven extant annotated books of Journey to the West in the Qing Dynasty, which was collected in the National Library under the name of “Huai Ming” (annotator). The Bibliography and Literature Press published its photocopies in 1996. Although some scholars have paid attention to and studied this book before, the real name and identity of its author (annotator) “Huai Ming” has always been an unsolved mystery, and its academic value has not been fully recognized.Based on the research of some materials collected by Zhejiang Library, this paper first ascertained the author of Annotations of Journey to the West, and determined that he was Zhu Dunyi, a scholar at Kuaiji in Zhejiang Province in the late Qing Dynasty. Zhu Dunyi used to adopt “Huai Ming”, “Qingzhou Official” and other pseudonyms with profound implications. The meaning behind “Huai Ming” is “cultivating inner elixir”.In this paper, the religious attributes and characteristics of remarks in Annotations of Journey to the West are clarified through detailed textual research on some Taoist literatures. The research shows that these remarks also interpret Journey to the West with the Taoist theory for inner elixir, which is similar to other annotated books of Journey to the West in the Qing Dynasty. However, the knowledge of the Taoist theory for inner elixir used by it does not belong to the Quanzhen Religion represented by Qiu Chuji, but belongs to the Southern Sect of the Taoist theory for inner elixir represented by Zhang Boduan. In all annotated books of Journey to the West in the Qing Dynasty, it is the only one that does so.This paper also discusses the unique value of Annotations of Journey to the West for the study of Journey to the West and Zhu Dunyi on the basis of relevant achievements of modern academic circles.As one of the seven extant annotated books of Journey to the West in the Qing Dynasty, Annotations of Journey to the West is an indispensable material for the study of the critical history of Journey to the West.Some of the remarks in Annotations of Journey to the West accurately reveal the connotation and interrelationship among the terms of the Taoist theory for inner elixir in Journey to the West (such as Jingong, Mumu, Tumu, etc), which is helpful for modern readers to fully and accurately understand the ideological content of Journey to the West. According to the unique remarks in Annotations of Journey to the West, some of the terms of the Taoist theory for inner elixir in Journey to the west do not come from the well-known Quanzhen Religion, but from the relatively unfamiliar Southern Sect of the Taoist theory for inner elixir. This can provide new perspectives for identifying the author of Journey to the West.Apart from Annotations of Journey to the West, Zhu Dunyi has four other works, three of which have attracted the attention of the academic community and have been compiled into modern books for official publication. With the author of Annotations of Journey to the West being determined, his remarks of hundreds of thousands of words can be used as important references for comprehensive studies of Zhu Dunyi and his works, and can also amend and supplement previous research results. For example, according to the signature on Zhu Dunyi’s work Laozi Daodejing Canhu, some modern scholars think that Zhu Dunyi once worked as a “Qingzhou Official” in Shandong Province, which is actually a misunderstanding. It can be amended according to the hint from remarks of Annotations of Journey to the West: “Qingzhou Official” is actually not Zhu Dunyi’s official title, but a pseudonym he took according to an allusion to the Taoist theory for inner elixir.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 200-209 [Abstract] ( 484 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3960KB] ( 460 )
210 Lie Fu
Mikhail Bakhtin’s Unique Interpretation of the Author’s Intention Hot!
Interpreting the meaning of literary works always involves the important issue of how to view the author’s intention. Among different views of the hermeneutic community on this issue, Bakhtin’s perspective features both similarities and his own uniqueness, which also reflects his distinctive approach to literary hermeneutics. From the very beginning, Bakhtin has blazed a new trail in interpreting the different existences of the author’s intention in the text by starting from the heteroglossia and dialogism of the speaker’s words. For example, in Discourse in the Novel, by conducting an in-depth comparison of the discourse in poetry and novels, he clarifies from different levels that it is impossible for the novelist’s reference to things to not take into account the discourse of other relevant people. In Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics, Bakhtin gives his own comments despite dissenting views by starting from the unique interlingual relationship between Dostoevsky and his protagonists, thereby making a unique discovery that Dostoevsky has adopted a polyphonic approach different from monological novels to achieve his intention. When it comes to polyphonic novels, people often regard dialogism as a prominent feature of such novels. According to Bakhtin’s understanding, the dialogism in Dostoevsky’s polyphonic novels is mainly reflected in three discourse levels: first in the dialogue between the author and the characters, second in the dialogue between different characters, and third in the characters’ dialogue with themselves and others in the monologue. Bakhtin manages to give a detailed analysis of the latter two levels of dialogism with brilliant insights, yet he has never neglected the dialogism at the first level from beginning to the end. If Tolstoy’s intention is mainly expressed by means of the completed narrative discourse in his monological novels, with the author-narrator voice always dominating in the novel discourse, Bakhtin finds that Dostoevsky likes to secretly internalize the author’s intention on the characters and turn it into one of the voices depicted in the novel. It is with this method that the author outside the story can have a transboundary dialogue with the characters, thereby turning the author’s voice from “back-to-back” to “face-to-face” with the character, which also contributes a full “dialogical expressiveness” to the author’s ultimate intention in the polyphonic novel. The reason why so many commentators are used to interpreting the author’s intention in the novel by monologue, and why such interpretation has its own explanatory power, is that most of the previous novels are originally monological novels. In Bakhtin’s view, only from Dostoevsky did authors start to break away from the solid framework of monological novels where the author’s voice is always higher than that of the character, and to create polyphonic novels where the author and the characters can talk on an equal basis. Whether Bakhtin’s interpretation fits the reality of Dostoevsky’s works is definitely an academic issue worthy of continuous contention, yet his unique interpretation itself represents his unique vision on the author’s intention, and opens up a brand-new perspective in the interpretation history of the author’s intention.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 210-221 [Abstract] ( 412 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1300KB] ( 439 )
222 Ou Rong
A New Dimension of "Transitional Anxiety": "Two Cultures" Debate Revisited Hot!

Compared with the cultural criticism initiated by Thomas Carlyle and other British men of letters in the 19th Century that embodies their “transitional anxiety”, revealing their doubt and critique on the “progressive discourses” of mechanical civilization, cultural criticism in the 20th Century reflects a new “transitional anxiety” with new characteristics. Though the two world wars finished up the myth of linear social progress, the optimistic discourses like “scientific advance” and “welfare first” were still prevailing, which provides new targets and new context for the British post-war cultural criticism. The “Two Cultures” Debate between F. R. Leavis and C. P. Snow tend to be simplified as a controversy over literature and science, as critics mostly attend to their initial talks and neglect their later reflections and revisions. If we explore the event throughout, however, and put it in the context of cultural criticism in the post-war transitional period, we will find that rather than just a division of “science vs. literature”, it reveals two different ideas of culture. Borrowing the concept of culture from anthropology with an instrumental and utilitarian understanding of concept, Snow evaluated the Two Cultures in terms of quantity. Leavis, on the contrary, inherited the Romantic idea of culture as a counter force to resist the “external civilization” and therefore, in his mind, there was only “one culture”, the cultural tradition, which was the best of human accomplishments and indivisible.The opposite ideas of Leavis and Snow originated from their different “anxiety” over the historical transition of the post-war English society. Snow’s anxiety arose from his political and utilitarian considerations as he advocated the centrality of science in school education in order to protect the British interest against the Americans and Germans in scientific competition and the ideological rivalry of the Soviet Union. Leavis suffered from the truly cultural anxiety as he was frustrated by the erosion of English cultural tradition by the American commercial and consumption culture. He was worried that the great English tradition would decline and become a “minority culture” while “mass civilization” would become a major culture. Though they had different sources of anxiety, both entrusted education, university education in particular, with the mission of relieving their anxiety and tackling the cultural challenges they were faced with. Likewise, owing to different ideas of culture, they had different expectations of education. Snow understood education as being instrumental in producing talents for the service of the society; Leavis, by contrast, believed in the humanist education.To sum up, the Leavis-Snow Controversy reflects the change of ideas of culture in post-war Britain affected by scientism and technologico-Benthamism. The event and its aftermath have found echoes in the literary creation of some post-war and contemporary British writers, including Snow himself, David Lodge, Kazuo Ishiguro, and Ian McEwan, manifesting fruitful interactions between literature and culture. Moreover, the “Two Cultures” Debate originating in England has provoked people all over the world to reflect on the missions of culture and higher education ever since.

2021 Vol. 51 (1): 222-231 [Abstract] ( 262 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1194KB] ( 349 )
232 Shi Yeting
The Space of Paris in Modiano’s Writings Hot!
Paris is inexhaustibly depicted in the writings of the French writer Patrick Modiano during World War Ⅱ and in the 1960s. It is different from the real Paris and also different from that in the imagination and description displayed by others, presenting, at the same time, a combination of precision of reality and poetic symbolism, which is typical of Modiano’s style. The writer substitutes the fragmented and mosaic time for the linear one in his narration, and endows time with the spatial dimension to make it rich and diversified. Time and space are closely related and interdependent, which is a major feature of Modiano’s creation. In the second half of the Twentieth Century, the spatial criticism received increasing attention, and became a more innovative theoretical perspective. To literature, space is not only a place or a background of the story, but an element that is closely related to human activities. Time is no longer the only reference to tracing memories. Modiano’s writing is not only wandering through time but also advancing in space. Compared with time which has been studied more frequently, space has been proved to be more innovative and have more possible theoretical perspectives; therefore, it deserves more profound researches and explorations. Studying Modiano’s Paris is a way to discover the writer’s art of writing. Henri Lefebvre divides space into three categories: physical space including nature and the universe as a whole; spiritual space covering logical abstraction and inner emotion; and social space encompassing power symbol and social relationship. The richness and uniqueness of Modiano’s Paris can be considered from the three different levels of Lefebvre’s theory.Modiano describes Paris, as a physical space, with an authentic division of its urban area, a series of precise addresses, and a faithful and meticulous description of space, which helps give the writer’s literary space a strong sense of historical reality. Besides, when describing the space, Modiano excels in using a cinema-like perspective: a “pan shot” perspective or “deep-focus shot” perspective, in that it presents the visual reality in front of the reader. The perspective of “standing by the window”, furthermore, connects authenticity with imagination, reality with emotion, landscape with thinking, and finally upgrades Modiano’s Paris from a physical level to a spiritual level. Modiano divides Paris into the inner and outer ring roads, the left and right side of the Seine River at a spiritual level: rejection or affection, integrity or betrayal. Characters’ emotions, thoughts, and daily activities all correspond to the city’s subdivision. This is the human value of the space that Gaston Bachelard pays attention to: The imagination enables Paris, as a literary space, to transcend its physical attributes and become an entity of human experience, perception and reflection. Every district of Paris has a different atmosphere, which has a significant impact on the emotions, psychology and ways of thinking of the characters, becoming thus poetic in the eyes of the characters. Modiano’s Paris is therefore poetic and fanciful. From the social perspective, it becomes a space containing the confrontation of power relations: the ruler and the ruled, the strong and the weak. In this world, the strong dominate the weak, and the weak respond in their own way. The characters have changed the social relationship and the balance of power in the form of loss, escape, rebellion and search, which constantly reacts to the space and shapes it. Paris is described and summarized by some more abstract spatial concepts: a “neutral zone” in which everything is unresolved, an “escape line”, the concept of Gilles Deleuze, and a “horizon” representing hope for the future. It has a richer and multi-level interaction with human destiny and memory. Paris in Modiano’s writing, as a specific kind of “realms of memory”, stays in an open, non-binary state of eternal change. Thus, Modiano’s Paris embodies, in turn, a characteristic of richness, profundity and uniqueness.
2021 Vol. 51 (1): 232-240 [Abstract] ( 290 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1131KB] ( 488 )
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