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JOURNAL OF ZHEJIANG UNIVERSITY 2020 Vol.6 Number 3
2020, Vol.6 Num.3
Online: 2020-05-10

Article
 
Article
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2020 Vol. 6 (3): 1- [Abstract] ( 391 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1651KB] ( 432 )
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2020 Vol. 6 (3): 4- [Abstract] ( 202 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 16 )
15 Liu Tongfang She Meixi
The Limits and Transcendence: A Study of Karl Marx's Evaluation of ″Scorpion and Felix″

Marx described his work ″Scorpion and Felix″ to be colored with idealism, implying the existence of idealism in the linguistic expressions but not in the real content. Though formally characterized as the non-realisticness and abstractness of idealism, the romance set its story in non-idealistic material existence. The idealist entanglements in the depth of Marx's thought are manifested in the conflict between the formal idealism and the non-idealism of the content. This impact led Marx to give second thoughts to idealism. Reflecting on idealism in the light of reality, Marx analyzed the limits of idealism from three dimensions: the infringement of man’s creation, the infringement of real-life man and the conflict between its basis and reality. To delve deep into the limits of idealism and the solutions, Marxism traced the roots of idealism to Romanticism. He revealed that the noumenon of idealism is the abstract universal spirit derived from Romanticism and that the way in which idealism rationalizes its existence is the generation and deduction of the universal spirit. Marxism realized that the abstract nature of idealism and the way it was generated resulted in the limitation of its thinking: the opposition between its basis and the reality. He combined the symbolic expression of idealism with realistic factors, abstract logical deduction with the development of social history, and instrumentalized idealism, which made idealism change from the content intended to express into the means of expression. By introducing realistic factors into the novel, Marx achieved the transcendence of idealism. He pointed out the rupture of the rational understanding in Kant's idealism and denied that practical reason can achieve ideals and solve the limits of idealism. He revealed that the absolute subjectivity of Fichte's ″absolute self″ intensified the opposition of the limits of idealism. Marx resisted the idealism of Kant and Fichte, but favored Hegel's logical realism, which clearly reflected the important position of the writing interest in criticizing reality and the realistic spirit of rooting in history in Marx's thought at this time. However, Marx did not stop at grasping reality in the abstract. He also criticized Hegel's false reality assimilated by idealism. He pointed out the irrationality of Hegel's idealistic state view and analyzed the idealistic nature of state governance. Marx traced back to the historical origin of country, analyzed the realistic factors affecting its development, replaced the ″reality″ in the universal spirit and logic development of idealism with the reality in the historical development, broke the abstraction of idealism, explored the ideal existence in the real labor, and finally realized the substantive transcendence of the limit of idealism with the characteristic of the unity of ideal and reality.

 

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 15- [Abstract] ( 339 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1598KB] ( 489 )
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2020 Vol. 6 (3): 30- [Abstract] ( 261 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 16 )
35 Shen Manhong Qiang Mengmeng
Research Progress in Assessing and Managing Agricultural Production Risks

Agricultural production is a complex process involving both natural and economic reproduction, which often presents strong volatility. The frequent natural disasters and decentralized management make China’s agricultural production more complex. Identifying, evaluating, and managing agricultural production risks have always been the focus of researchers and policy managers. A comprehensive summary and review of the relevant theories of agricultural production risks will contribute to its future development. The connotation of agricultural production risks is derived from the general concept of risk, which refers to the possibility that the actual yield of agricultural products is lower than the expected yield due to various risk factors.The connotation of agricultural production risks needs to be understood from two aspects. On the one hand, the risk factors of agricultural production should not only refer to meteorological disasters, but also include a series of possible yield reduction factors such as pollution, pests, and diseases. On the other hand, in specific evaluation cases, most scholars use probability to quantify the possibility of loss. For pollution, pests, and diseases, however, this may be rather difficult, and only semi-quantitative evaluation can be done with thefocus on the size of the expected loss. There are three kinds of quantitative assessment methods of agricultural production risks: parametric distribution fitting, kernel density estimation, and nonparametric information diffusion modeling. The parametric distribution fitting method has good gradualness but it depends on the subjective hypothesis of a prior distribution. The kernel density estimation method is flexible but it does not perform well in small samples and cannot capture extreme events. The nonparametric information diffusion modeling method is suitable for small sample data but the key parameters of this method do not have any unified standard, and the specific probability density function cannot be obtained. The risk assessment of agricultural production ispracticed at the national and provincial levels. The production risks caused by specific factors such as pollution, diseasespests, andmeteorology, as well the comprehensive production risks under the joint action of multiple factors are all involved in the literature. At the same time, the risk assessment of agricultural production has been widely used in risk warning, risk zoning, financial product pricing, and insurance subsidy policy improving. In the absence of an effective external risk dispersion mechanism, farmers will adopt such measures as income diversification, production diversification, planting low-risk crops, reducing risk investment, and smoothing consumption to carry out "self-insurance". The experience of low-income countries shows that these strategies are not all effective and have potentially high costs while stabilizing production. Moreover, these strategies may be an important explanation for the slow growth of farmers' income and even the danger to fall into the poverty trap they are facing. As a hotspot in agricultural economics, innovative research results are expected to yield in the domain of the evaluation methods of agricultural production risks, evaluation cases, the effectiveness of management strategies, and the design of intervention mechanisms.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 35- [Abstract] ( 660 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1847KB] ( 420 )
40 Zhou Jiehong Li Yi Yan Zhen
Information Intervention on Consumers’ Trust and Their Willingness-to-pay for Certified Pork under Food Safety Crisis

Agricultural certificates, such as green or organic product certificates, can help agricultural food companies to reduce information asymmetry along supply chain. With high quality and safety, these products have greater market stability than non-certified products when exposed to food safety scandals. However, certified food products are still not so popular because common consumers are unfamiliar with and not willing to pay for high price. Information disclosure is considered to be an effective way to improve consumers’ trust level and their willingness to pay (WTP), therefore their consumption of certified food could be increased by providing with some information stimulation under food crisis. African swine fever (ASF) has posed a serious threat to the Chinese pork industry ever since it broke out in the country. However, it may have a positive effect on the promotion of certified pork. This paper attempts to explore how to implement information intervention to increase consumers’ WTP for certified pork in the context of a food crisis related to ASF, via providing different forms of information stimulation. Previous studies have focused on the detail content and sources of information, but few have investigated the intensity of information stimulation. In addition, in what degree of the food safety crisis affecting the development of the certified food industry remains unknown. To fill in this gap, an investigation was conducted in major pork consumption cities in China, and two different information stimulation groups (negative and balanced), and one as control were established on the basis of mass media reports on the ASF epidemic in China. The negative information listed the harm and current situation of swine fever, as well as negative news about branded pork exposed to ASF, and the balanced information included some positive information from experts to counter the negative information, while the control group did not contain any related news. The intensity of information stimulation in this work is represented by an index of possible experiences involving the purchase of diseased pork. We first employed the ordered probit model to verify that consumers were more willing to purchase certified food than non-certified food after epidemic information stimulus. Then a contingent valuation method was designed to verify the influence of trust level and intensity of information stimulation on consumers’ WTP for certified pork, including individual consumers’ characteristics as control variables. And then we calculated the marginal values of trust level and information stimulation intensity among different age groups. Based on the data from 706 valid questionnaires, the results show that consumer trust level and purchase frequency of certified pork were higher than those of non-certified pork under negative information stimulation, and trust level and information stimulation intensity had positive relation with consumption of certified food. In balance information groups, consumers’ trust level and purchase frequency of non-certified pork rose. After stimulated by negative information, consumers had a lower WTP for certified pork than those of WTP in the control group, while the effect of their trust level on WTP for certified pork would be enhanced under a higher intensity of information stimulation. However, this kind of moderating effect did not exist in the balanced information group. Young consumers with high levels of trust, as well as the richer ones were more willing to pay higher prices. From this point of view, food safety accidents can play a positive role in the promotion of certified food to a certain extent. The policy makers should actively provide guidance on food safety and promptly organize experts to explain the pros and cons to the public whose intensity of information stimulation would be increased with a clear understanding of food crises. Furthermore, it is essential to inform the public, especially older consumers about certified food, to improve their trust level.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 40- [Abstract] ( 383 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1749KB] ( 401 )
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2020 Vol. 6 (3): 50- [Abstract] ( 177 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 16 )
65 He Huaiwen
Computer-Generated Works under Chinese Copyright Law

Artificial intelligence (AI) is producing a new wave of innovation and creativity. AI is generating works bearing semblance of human-created works and thus has posed novel challenges to copyright law. Neither investment in developing an ″AI author″ nor its semblance to human-created works justifies the copyright for computer-generated works (CGWs). First and foremost, copyright subsists in works of human intellectual creation. This requirement is inherent in Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, Chinese copyright law as well as copyright laws of countries which have either copyright or author’s right tradition. Even though a legal person may be the initial owner of copyright, they are never recognized as having created any copyright work. Neither are their ownership of copyright grounded on financial investment. Instead, such ownership is normally founded on an implicit agreement with the human author(s) of the work. Investment justifies no ownership of copyright even under UK Copyright Law where computer-generated works (CGWs) are treated as a new category of copyright works, of which there is no human author. The copyright of CGWs is owned not by the investor, but by their deemed author ″the person by whom arrangements necessary for the creation of the work are undertaken″. Financial investment is substitutable and thus not ″arrangements necessary for the creation″ of CGWs. Neither do Chinese courts focus on investment in developing AI when approaching CGWs. Rather, they look for human intellectual creation. CGWs may not be assimilated to human-created works for their semblance. The so-called ″objective originality test″ will reduce the requirement of original intellectual creation to objective difference from existing matter. It would destroy the legal distinction between copyright and related rights in Chinese Copyright Law, the subject matter of the former being works of authorship and that of the latter being outside intellectual creation. In assessing originality, Chinese courts normally investigate the creative process to find the requisite intellectual creation that has ″directly produced″a work. CGWs are not exception. In the Tencent case, the court found there was infringement of a financial news story generated by robotic reporter called Dream Writer. In so holding, the court believed that the Tencent staff engaged in original intellectual creation which ″directly produced″ the copyright work by selecting data, setting the operative parameters, the template and the style for the robot to generate the disputed story. Nevertheless, CGWs which have the requisite human intellectual creation may be copyright works under Chinese Copyright Law.The designer of the generative program might in rare case be the author when his or her intellectual creation not only has ″directly produced″ the program but also its original literary and artistic output. The designer should not be protected as the author for all CGWs flowing from the program; otherwise, copyright is strained to protect the technological idea of how to produce ″works″, breaching the fundamental dichotomy of idea and expression. The user may be the author if there is such a close causal relationship between his or her selecting of input data and the original elements of a computer-generated work and in the relationship subsist human intellectual creation. By contrast, absent intellectual creation, seeming works generated by a computer are essentially digital products justified to enjoy neither copyright nor neighboring rights. They can be produced and circulated cheaply and effectively by virtue of current computing technology. They are not scarce and there is no evidence that proprietary protection is needed to incentivize the suppliers.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 65- [Abstract] ( 329 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1842KB] ( 546 )
77 Gao Yandong Li Ying
The Criminal Law Protection of Data Credit: Illustrated by the Case of Click Farming

In an era of information explosion, the connection between netflow and economy can generate business value, which has spawned a data fraud industry chain that makes malicious click farming as a profession. That is, “Click Farming”. Click farming is fraudulent in nature, seriously corrupting the authenticity and validity of data, and forming a lot of economic bubbles, which has buried a huge hidden danger for the healthy development of China's digital economy. Technical prevention and legal regulations are urgently needed. However, the click farming has the characteristics of profiteering, concealed and large-scale, thus other departmental laws, such as administrative law and civil law, face difficulties in prosecuting and obtaining evidence, etc. Therefore, it is of urgency and necessity to use criminal law to crack down on click farming industry chain. Based on combating crimes in the industrial age, China's current Criminal Law is obviously inadequate in dealing with the chaos of cyberspace. The means and forms of click farming are very diverse. At present, a few click farming behaviors can be punished according to the crime of illegal business operation, a few can be punished according to the crime of false advertising, and a small few can be punished according to the crime of destroying computer information system. However, none the above crimes can fully cover all types of malicious click farming behaviors and subjects, nor can they properly evaluate the nature of the legal interests infringed upon by click farm, which makes it difficult to effectively curb the spread of the data fraud industry chain. Therefore, the regulation of click farming within criminal law should be resolved from the legislative level in the future. The essence of malicious click farming is data fraud. The legal interest infringed by click framing is the normal credit order of society, the core of which is the data credit order in cyberspace. With the development and application of a new generation information technology, China has entered the era of digital economy. Data is not only a means of production, but also a strategic resource of the country. Protecting data rights and interests is the primary task of future legislation. The premise of the generation of data value is authenticity and validity. Only the data based on credit can be trusted by the public and promote economic development. If the data itself is false and untrue, then it is worthless or negative. Therefore, protecting data credit is a prerequisite for the healthy development of the digital economy. With the comprehensive promotion of the digital economy, data credit has gradually become the most important social credit. The rise of e-commerce platforms makes anonymous transactions become the mainstream transaction mode, and market transaction behavior tends to be more intelligent and platform oriented. In this process, traders have gradually transformed their trust in person and contract into information and data. It can be said that data credit is the basic order to maintain the normal operation of the digital economy. The protection of credit cannot stop at personal credit and contract credit, but should be extended to data credit. Therefore, adding "crime against data credit" is the first task to protect the basic order of the digital economy. The addition of "crime against data credit" does not violate modest restraining of criminal law. The anonymity and amplification effect of the Internet increases the harmfulness of illegal acts in cyberspace. The speed of technology update has far exceeded that of legislation, and the criminal law in the traditional industrial age has been difficult to deal with new types of cybercrimes in the information age. The core of coping with the risk of digital economy is to ensure the authenticity of data, that is, to ensure the order of data credit. In this process, the criminal law should give full play to the positive function of value guidance and order maintenance so as to promote the healthy development of the digital economy. The development of digital economy is related to the destiny of a nation. China must grasp the historical opportunity of the industrial revolution, and promote the economic prosperity with a good legal system. In the protection of new data rights, such as data credit, China should put forward distinctive solutions. Only by innovating legal theories to promote industrial development can China become a leader in the global digital economy.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 77- [Abstract] ( 449 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1742KB] ( 439 )
89 Chen Wenqiang Wang Xiaoting Jia Shenghua
Equity Incentive, Dual Vesting Restrictions and Corporate Risk Taking

The compensation mechanism plays an important role in corporate risk taking (CRT). As a key component of the modern corporate compensation system, the equity incentive plan (EIP) has been widely adopted among Chinese listed companies. However, relevant studies haven't reached an agreement regarding the relationships between EIP and CRT. According to Contract Theory, the outcome of contracts depends on the appropriate arrangement of key contractual terms. Chinese listed companies are obliged to grant EIP with time-and-performance-based vesting constraints. That is, when making risky decisions, executives are confronted with dual restrictions of vesting horizon and performance hurdles. However, most current empirical studies regard EIP as a homogeneous contract and overlook the heterogeneous impacts of the two vesting restriction terms. Using the samples of Chinese listed companies from 2006 to 2016, this paper explores the heterogeneous impacts of the dual vesting restrictions on CRT. The empirical results show that the grant of EIP significantly promotes CRT. However, this effect only exists in the samples with long vesting horizon constraints and moderate vesting performance hurdles. In samples with short vesting horizon and stringent vesting performance hurdles, the opposite effect occurs. The results also reveal an interaction effect between the two vesting restriction terms: the vesting horizon constraint not only strengthens the risk taking effect of EIP when the vesting performance hurdle is moderate, but also alleviates the risk aversion effect of EIP when the vesting performance hurdle is stringent. Further research finds that EIP impacts CRT through higher debt financing and R&D investment, and eventually promotes the dynamic growth of corporate value. However, this effect only significantly exists in the samples with long vesting horizon and moderate performance hurdles. This paper contributes to both theory and practice. Firstly, the existing literature mainly focuses on EIP’s direct effect on the static indexes like enterprise performance or behavior, but evidence is lacking with respect to its effect on the behavioral tendency variable. This paper focuses on CRT through which EIP exerts influence on firm performance, thus expands the research on the economic consequences of EIP. Secondly, different from the perspective that regards EIP as a homogeneous contract, this paper considers the heterogeneous effect of its dual vesting constraints. Specifically, this article not only tests the individual effects of vesting horizon constraints and performance hurdles on CRT, but also investigates their interaction effect, which expands the research on antecedents of CRT from the micro perspective of vesting restriction terms. Thirdly, this paper investigates how the risk taking effect of EIP is manifested in corporate investment and financing decisions, and ultimately, how it influences the dynamic change of corporate value. This study develops our understanding of the causal chain and mechanism of EIP’s risk taking effect, which helps open the ″ black box″ of EIP’s economic consequence and enriches the research on the specific route and value effect of CRT. Fourthly, this study found that only EIP with long vesting horizon constraints and moderate vesting performance hurdles can increase CRT, which provides important practical implications to both companies and policy makers. For listed companies, this finding helps to optimize the design of EIP’s vesting restriction terms. For policy makers, this finding offers directions for formulating and improving regulatory policies, administrative measures and guide specifications regarding EIP.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 89- [Abstract] ( 627 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1844KB] ( 377 )
96 Jiang Ling Tan Xiangping Chen Liurong
Empirical Analysis of Generating Factors and Internal Mechanisms of Post-Truth Events

In recent years, there have been more and more post-truth events. Government websites, government agencies, media and Internet users play different roles in the post-truth events. People are often influenced by factors, such as their positions, beliefs, values, and emotions, and the truth is submerged, obscured or delayed in the torrent of public opinion before it comes to surface. Hence the post-truth events will undoubtedly cast negative effects on the public opinion space and the real society. In this sense, the empirical analysis which investigates the major factors causing the post-truth events and its internal mechanisms, become an important and meaningful thing. It has important theoretical and practical significance. On the basis of clarifying the concept and connotation of the post-truth, this paper firstly analyzed the main generating factors of post-truth events. Firstly, we use a questionnaire to survey information acquisition channels, the degree of trust of information source, the degree of emotional expression ,the attitude towards events on the Internet and individual’s information. Using principal component analysis, this article analyzed the main generating factors and the internal mechanisms of post-truth events. Six factors were identified through principal component analysis, which includes ″unofficial trust″,″official trust″, ″official source″, ″social source″, ″attitude towards others″ and ″self-reflection″. Secondly, correlation was tested between the six factors and the dependent variable ″emotional expression of the audience″ by using the Pearson correlation test. Finally, this paper proposed countermeasures and suggestions to prevent post-truth events from the perspectives of government, media and audience.  The major factors that generate post-truth events include: the audience's information acquisition channels, the network public opinion atmosphere, the extent to which the online public opinion space accommodates different opinions, the willingness of the audience to pursue the truth, and the irrational or emotional expression of different opinions.〖JP2〗 The internal mechanisms in the generation of post-truth events are as follows: 1) Individuals obtain information from official, authoritative or unofficial, non-authoritative sources, and the multi-channel, multi-source information may exacerbate the individual's emotional expression tendency;〖JP〗 2) The online public opinion atmosphere will then have an impact on the individual judgment. This is especially true with emotion-oriented Internet paradoxes resulting in the ″Information Boudoir″ and ″Echo Room Effect″. Therefore, netizens are unwilling to accept opinions coming from different positions, beliefs, values, and especially different emotions, which hence accelerates the spread of emotional speeches; 3) Those who are not affected by the ″Silent Spiral Effect″ are calmer and more objective. These people present a lower emotional tendency when expressing dissent; 4) Meanwhile, the diversification of information channels leads to the fragmentation of information and the diminishing credibility of information. The complex and even radical network public opinions may cause the netizens to suspect the truth of the incident; 5) In the process of pursuing the truth of the incident, netizens are vulnerable to the ″sympathy for the weak″ and the pursuit of individual rights and interests, which intensify the individual's emotional expression. The emotional expression of many individuals in the online public opinion space transcends the truth of the event itself. The truth is thus obscured, distorted, derived, or over-deducted. As such, the government, the media, and the audience need to work together to avoid the generation and spread of post-truth events and prevent their risks and harms.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 96- [Abstract] ( 616 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1747KB] ( 573 )
108 Sun Mengru Jiang Li Guo Qin
Research Paths of Public Risk Perception and Behaviour of Public Health Events from the Perspective of Health Communication

In the 21st century, the frequent occurrence of global public health incidents not only severely affects the public’s psychology, but also poses serious challenges to public behavior and government crisis management. It is of great practical significance to study the mechanism of public risk perception and response behavior under public health events. In the new media environment, health communication studies from a multi-disciplinary perspective that integrates multidisciplinary theories contribute to the study of public risk perceptions, behavioral rules, and public emotional guidance in public health events. The public is the core subject in public health events. Different people’s perceptions of public health events vary greatly, and their perceptions further affect their attitudes and behaviors. Based on the disciplines of public management and social psychology, the research on public risk perception and behavior of public health events from the perspective of health communication is an expansion and deepening. Researchers widely believe that public risk perception is the core element that affects public risk response behaviors, and the research field of risk perception is also expanding. Based on the deficiencies and improvements of previous research, the article proposes the main path of public risk perception and risk behavior under public health events research from the perspective of health communication. From the perspective of health communication, the study of public risk perception and behavior under public health events is a systematic and complete subject, with risk communication and communication as the core, including five research paths: multidisciplinary and multiple methods are combined together to establish research paradigms; the psychological mechanism in public health events is explored from the individual level; the group behavior in public health events is explored from the group commonality level; the public health events are explored from a sociocultural perspective; and strategies are identified to guide public emotions and behaviors. These five basic constituent elements, namely ″source→message→channel→receiver→feedback″, comprehensively and systematically characterize the dissemination process of risk information. The risk information is first sent from the communicator, who communicate the risk information to people through interpersonal communication and media communication and then perceived and accepted by the public. The ″5W″ model takes into account the entire communication effect from the source to the audience, as well as the status and role of different subjects (such as government, media, and the public) in the communication process. It can be seen from the literature review that the existing research has involved all aspects of this process, but there are still some problems to be probed,especially problems arising from the five research paths of health communication need to be broken through and solved. Surrounding these five research paths, relevant research from the perspective of health communication has important theoretical and practical significance.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 108- [Abstract] ( 703 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1804KB] ( 828 )
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2020 Vol. 6 (3): 116- [Abstract] ( 218 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 13 )
128 Wang Yong Chen Lingzhi
A New Discussion on the Written Conversations Between Sun Yat-sen and Miyazaki Totten

Since the Sui and Tang Dynasties, East Asian countries have maintained frequent cultural exchanges. In the pre-modern times without an established interpretation system, people cross-languages in that area often communicated by writing, namely in the form of written conversation. As a primary form of communication between East Asian countries in the past, written conversation remained until the early Republic of China. In the turbulent late Qing Dynasty, under domestic and foreign oppression, many elites and aspirants had to flee overseas. Japan across the sea became a preferred refuge for many of them. Despite the hindrance of language barrier, Chinese and Japanese people communicated through written conversation, which left many precious historical materials. In August 1897, Sun Yat-sen, who had wandered overseas, eventually settled in Yokohama, Japan. Not capable of Japanese, he could only communicate with Japanese people by written conversation, among which included Miyazaki Touten, an important foreign friend in Sun's revolutionary career. Fortunately, some of the original manuscripts of the written conversations was managed to preserve, which has became one of the essential parts of Miyazaki Totten's family collection. There are several versions in the movable type of the written conversations between Sun and Miyazaki. However, discrepancies exist between those versions. For example, the identification of interlocutors, the chronological sequence of the remaining manuscripts, and the transcripts of the text. Moreover, collating the content was arduous due to the lack of the original manuscripts, which also caused the related research stuck in the bottleneck. In recent years, a photocopy of the manuscripts of written conversations between Sun and Miyazaki has finally come out, which not only provides direct material for the collation, but also reveals unknown historical secrets. For a long time, the remaining manuscripts in Miyazaki's family collection were preconceived as Sun and Miyazaki's handwritings. In fact, there was a third person, Munakata Kotaro. Meanwhile, combining with other historical materials, it also provides the possibility to sort the remaining manuscripts in sequence by cracking the identity of the interlocutors. Adopting research methods including quoting relevant materials, comparing original handwritings and etc., to this study redefines the identities of the interlocutors and presume the proper sequence as well as the approximate time span of the written conversations. Three main conclusions can be drawn by collating the text of the remaining manuscripts:(1)After August 1897, Hirayama Shu also participated in the written conversations between Sun and Miyazaki;(2)Miyazaki Touten has generally been considered as the interlocutor of the written conversations in November 1897. However, according to the manuscripts of this written conversation and Munakata Kotaro Diary, the person wrote to Sun Yat-sen should be Munakata Kotaro instead;(3)Resequencing the remaining manuscripts based on the details appearing in the written conversations (e.g. characters, places, time, writing tools, topics, etc.). As the first-hand material for the historical studies of Modern China and Sino-Japanese relations, the remaining manuscripts of the written conversations between Sun and Miyazaki are of great historical value. In summary, this study has identified interlocutors, verified time span and resequenced the manuscripts of the written conversations between Sun and Miyazaki, which will forge a solid foundation for the in-depth content study of the written conversation in the future.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 128- [Abstract] ( 439 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1744KB] ( 519 )
136 Pan Jianguo
The Form and Spread of the Written Conversation Between Chinese and Korean Literati: Taking the Manuscripts of the Written Conversations Between Liu Daguan and Korean Envoys in Qing Dynasty as an Example

Written conversation is a special method of communication in the East Asian Chinese cultural circle. This type of exchange relied on the shared Chinese characters among countries in this circle, which could overcome the language barrier and achieve a non-sound conversation using paper and pen. Written conversation normally occurred between China and North Korea, China and Japan, China and Vietnam, and also took place between Korea, Japan and Vietnam. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, China and the Korean Peninsula maintained stable diplomatic relations, and a large number of Korean missions came to China. Therefore, some vibrant and interesting written conversations took place between Chinese and Korean literati in sequences. A great quantity of these written conversations were preserved in the Chaotian record or Yanxing record. Nevertheless, they were generally transcribed and collated afterwards. Most of the manuscripts have been lost, hence it is difficult to examine their details. In the fourth year of the Chien-lung Emperor (1799, 23rd year of Jeongjo of Joseon), Korean literati Seo Hyeong-su and Han Chi-eung went to China as a deputy envoy and a diplomatic messenger respectively. When Korean embassies in Beijing passed through Ningyuan, they held four rounds of written conversations with Liu Daguan, a Chinese scholar who served as a magistrate. Part of the manuscripts of the conversation was preserved by Liu Daguan and handed down. which has recently come to light known as hand scroll of written conversation manuscripts. Based on this precious material combined with other records of Korean embassies in Beijing, we could make a preliminary academic investigation on the form and circulation of Chinese and Korean literati's written conversations. Generally, they would paste papers together in advance in order to increase space for more words to be written and to determine the order of the contents. The written conversation generally proceeded in turn. The question and answer were carried out alternately, forming a paragraph separately. If the content of the answer is simple, it was written directly between the lines on the left side of the question, or put together without starting another paragraph. When encountering sensitive topics in written conversation, they would obliterate them, write them on another piece of paper, or tear them up after writing, so as to avoid the issue. When the exchange finished, they would write a specific time at the end of the paper. We should point out that the above investigation is mainly based on the form of hand scroll of written conversation manuscripts. Although it does not represent the general practice or routine of the written conversation between Chinese and Korean literati, it still offered a tantalizing glimpse when the original manuscripts of written conversation are extremely rare. In fact, both Chinese and Korean scholars had the desire to collect the manuscripts of written conversation, and they would keep part of the manuscripts separately. In contrast, Korean literati were more active in transcribing and compiling the content of written conversation afterwards. However, these collated written conversations inevitably shows the traces of ″off-site″ more or less, which was generally caused by the loss of the manuscript, by the mistakes of the participants' memory, or by the deletion of sensitive content and modification of rambling words. Therefore, researchers should pay attention to this nature of those collated materials and use them with differentiation and discreetness.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 136- [Abstract] ( 390 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 7639KB] ( 485 )
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2020 Vol. 6 (3): 147- [Abstract] ( 232 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 17 )
164 Wang Yueting
A Discussion on the Language Operation Modes of Ancient Chinese and the Related Morphological Markers in Different Reading Systems

This paper focuses on variant reading pairings. In ancient Chinese, there were at least three morphological-related operating modes including ″ergative/absolutive″, ″nominative/accusative″ and ″host/object″: (1) The state verbs function as the relationship of ″absolutive/ergative″ mode,where the ergative argument is a marked item, and the mark cross-references to the verb, which causes the pronunciation of the verb to change from voiced to clear or to prefix such as *s-. Take ″Jin (晋) was defeated / Qi (齐) defeated Jin (晋)″ as an example: ″defeat″ is a state verb, and both ″Jin (晋)″ are experiencers, without mark,they are ″ absolutive ″; ″Qi (齐)″ of ″Qi (齐) defeated Jin (晋)″ is extraterritorial. The causal argument serves as an ergative, and its mark *s- cross-references to the verb ″defeat″, which causes ″defeat″ to be pronounced as a consonant. (2) The action verb is pronounced with a falling tone (Qu Sheng) as it is added to the non-patient object.This falling tone marks the ″increase″ function of the verb, adds a non-patient object, and which is usually placed close to the verb. The object position happens to form the ″nominative/accusative ″ syntactic operation mode in the context of action verbs. Take ″Xuanzi walks (走上声)/Xuanzi walks to (走去声) a strong palace″ as an example: ″Walk″ is an intransitive verb that expresses an action. It has an informative function when it is pronounced with a falling tone (Qu Sheng) and points to a new argument whose semantic meaning is not originally contained. At this time, the subject of the intransitive sentence and the transitive sentence are both the agent ″Xuanzi″, and the object of the transitive sentence ″a strong palace″ is in its own category, which is exactly consistent with the ″nominative/accusative″ pattern. (3) Some other action verbs operate according to the ″host/object″ mode, that is, the same action, behavior, and event are named from the element with the highest degree of control (host) and the element with the second degree of control (object).That is, the host and the object act as the subject respectively to form a variant reading paired sentence. The essence is to use the variant reading to indicate that the object acts as the subject. Take ″teaching/learning″ as an example: In teaching activities, the teacher holds the highest degree of control, and the student is subordinate. Therefore, for teacher the activity is teaching, and for students it is learning. Take the example of ″Zheng Zhuanggong sent (使上声) Zhai Zu to pay tribute to Zhou/Zhai Zu was sent (使去声) to Qi (齐)″: In this incident, the person with the highest degree of control is ″Zheng Zhuanggong″, who usually acted as the subject and issued the ″send (使上声) ″ action; the second most controlled person is ″Zhai Zu″. He is subjected to ″Zheng Zhuanggong ″ but still has a certain degree of autonomy. When he acts as the subject, ″send (使上声)″ reads ″to be sent (使去声)″. It can be seen from the above that if we focus on different reading pairs and syntactic combinations, the verbs in ancient Chinese can be divided into two parts according to actions and states, but the action verbs are not simple.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 164- [Abstract] ( 386 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1698KB] ( 598 )
175 Bian Tiangang
Enlightenment of Unearthed Documents on the Study of Ancient Chinese Vocabulary

At the beginning of creation and distribution, ancient literature was written in ancient characters. Characters are the carrier of vocabulary. Therefore, in order to have a deeper understanding of the ancient Chinese vocabulary system, it is necessary to have a basic knowledge of ancient Chinese characters. In the era of great discovery of ancient written materials, we have unique advantages in using ancient written materials to study ancient Chinese vocabulary. Some of the problems of ancient Chinese vocabulary which are difficult to solve from the perspective of past handed-down documents are expected to be explained reasonably by unearthed documents. The unearthed documents have three enlightenments for the study of ancient Chinese vocabulary. (1) Ancient documents were written in the form of ancient characters at the beginning of their creation and dissemination, among which there may be traces of the characters of the six countries in the documents of the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. It has been proved that it is feasible to collate and interpret the difficult words in the handed down documents according to the unearthed ancient literary materials of the same time and region. The handed down version of Mu Tianzi Zhuan was unearthed in the tomb of Wei Xiangwang (so-called ″Ji Zhong″), and its characters should belong to the so-called ″Sanjin System″. In Volume 6 of this book, ″狎″ ″狃″ are mistakes of ″〖XC田.tif,JZ〗″. ″〖XC田.tif,JZ〗″ is the special structure of ″田(畋)″ in Sanjin area. (2) There are significant differences in the correspondence between the glyph and lexicon of ancient Chinese and its descendants. Some of the relationships between glyph and lexicon of ancient Chinese have not been changed by the standardization of descendants, so it has become a difficult problem for lexical interpretation to retain them in the handed down literature. The evidence of the relationship between glyph and lexicon retained in the unearthed documents provides a valuable reference for solving these vocabulary problems. The ″勳″ of ″扬文武大勳″ in the handed down version of Yizhoushu corresponds to ″剌″ in Tsinghua bamboo book Zhaigong Zhi Guming. From the evidences of literary meaning and lexicon, we can see that ″勳″ is a font error of ″剌″ 's ancient character form. (3) In the process of exegetical interpretation of ancient Chinese characters, we often encounter the situation that there are many schemes for exegetical interpretation of word meanings and parts of speech in specific fonts. The lexical evidence of unearthed documents can determine the scope of part of speech and word meanings, and help to improve the accuracy of lexical interpretation. As for the explanation of the word ″居″ in the Yanghuo chapter of Analects of Confucius, there used to be two notions of the substantive word ″kneel down″ and the non-substantive auxiliary word. The lexical evidence of ″坐,吾语女″ in Chu bamboo slips of Shanghai Museum proves that the word ″居″ here in Yanghuo chapter is undoubtedly used as the verb ″kneel down″.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 175- [Abstract] ( 539 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 5426KB] ( 612 )
176 Zhang Guoqing YangYulian
Sympathy and Justice: A Secret Association Between the Theories of Justice of Smith and Rawls

Just as Adam Smith is one of the representatives of classical utilitarianism,John Rawls is one of the representatives of contemporary liberalism, through criticizing utilitarianism, he establishes a liberalism justice theory with a conception of fairness and justice as its core idea. Rawls expresses his appreciation for Adam Smith and criticizes the latter’s theory of justice in his works. But Rawls’ response to Smith’s thought is very rough. Whether Rawls deliberately avoids Smith’s moral philosophy is of great significance to understand the theories of justice between liberalism and utilitarianism. By comparing the justice theories of Rawls and Smith, we will reveal the relationship between them, judge the rationality of Rawls’ criticism of utilitarian justice theory, and evaluates the influence of Smith’s justice theory on contemporary political philosophy. Adam Smith puts forward a theory of justice from the view of a sympathetic and impartial spectator in his The Theory of Moral Sentiment. First of all, Smith believes that moral judgment is based on such an assumption that an impartial spectator has an ability of sympathy. Secondly, Smith further investigates and summarizes the characteristics of ″an impartial spectator″: impartiality; interest neutrality; understanding the truth of things, and he derives the legal system of justice from the assumption of ″an impartial spectator″. Smith distinguishes justice from benevolence. He concludes that justice is a negative virtue, benevolence is a positive one. Rawls’ criticism of Smith’s ″an impartial spectator″ theory of justice focuses on three aspects. Firstly, Rawls believes that the definition of impartial spectator does not make any assumption about the possibilities of the principles of justice. Secondly, Rawls criticizes that ″an impartial spectator″ only takes some preferences to be satisfied as an important measure to formulate social justice principles, without considering the aims of those preferences satisfied, and neglecting the satisfaction of some individuals’ preferences at the expense of others’ interests. Finally, Rawls believes that ″an impartial spectator″ is the integrator of simple preferences. However, Rawls’ comments on ″impartial spectator″ is not the truth as Smith’s interpretation on that notion. Rawls misreads Smith’s justice theory to some extent. Firstly, Rawls ignores the three characteristics of ″impartial spectator″: disinterested, uninvolved and not personally affected. In fact, it is the same as the ″mutual disinterestedness″ characteristic of the parties in the original position that Rawls assumes in his A Theory of Justice. Secondly, Rawls ignores that what Smith pursues is not a society with the maximum utility and the best average wealth. Smith is more concerned with the realization of justice. His theory of justice gives priority to the interests of the middle and lower classes in a society, he wants to unite the forces of the middle and lower classes, restrain and divide the interests of the upper class to realize the maximization of social interests. Rawls ignores the important contribution of Smith’s theory of justice to making some balance of the interests between social classes. In fact, Smith’s ″impartial spectator″ and Rawls’s ″the parties behind the veil of ignorance″ are two notions corresponding with one another. Smith deducts from sympathy to an impartial spectator’s justice, while Rawls deducts from the individuals in the original position to a conception of justice as fairness. Smith’s ″justice is the fundamental of society″ is similar to Rawls’s ″justice is the primary virtue of social institutions″. Therefore, there is a secret association between the justice theories of Smith and Rawls. And the sense of justice,or the sentiment of justice,is a key to show that secret, one belongs to Rawls, the other to Smith.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 176- [Abstract] ( 714 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1706KB] ( 410 )
188 Liu Qingping
A New Explanation to the Trolley Problem: Free Will and Autonomous Responsibility in the Moral Dilemma

The trolley problem constitutes a typical moral dilemma, and the point lies in how to balance and compare the rights to life of five people and of one person in their conflict. In the past half century, people have put forward several solutions around it from the standpoints of consequentialism and deontology respectively. From the specific perspective of free will, this paper tries to analyze what kinds of autonomous responsibility the subject should take when choosing these solutions according to the normative bottom line of justice as ″no harm to human fellows″ or ″respect for human rights″. On the surface, the solution of saving five people at the cost of one person's death is completely in line with the utilitarian principle of ″the greatest happiness of the greatest majority″ and thus seems to be impeccable. No matter in which version, however, the subject has to bear the very responsibility for one person's death according to the bottom line of justice, with different degrees though. Firstly, in the extreme version where a doctor kills a healthy person in order to cure five patients, or a bystander throw a fat guy off the bridge to block the trolley, the subject should bear the extremely serious moral and even legal responsibility of intentionally murdering an innocent person, because, in order to achieve his good will of saving five people, he actively engaged in the criminal act of depriving the victim of her or his right to life. Secondly, if a bystander manipulates thetrolley and causes a person to die for saving five people in the original version, he or she still should take certain autonomous responsibility for the death of the person, although he or she has some reason to be praised for saving five people. Indeed, he or she did not at all ignore the life right of the victim, as he only ″caused″ the death of the innocent, not ″intentionally killed″ the innocent. In view of that his or her direct intervention indirectly caused the death of the person, yet, his or her great merits of saving five people still can't offset the negative consequence of his or her intervention. Finally, if the trolley driver makes the similar choice in the original version, he or she should also bear some responsibility for the loss of a person's life, though to a lesser extent mainly because it is his or her duty to manipulate the trolley. In another type of solution, by contrast, if the subject, as a passive bystander, refuses to intervene and thus let five people die, he or she should bear some autonomous responsibility for the negative consequences. Firstly, if the subject refuses to intervene because of indifference, he or she should be rightly condemned for her or his indifference. Secondly, if the subject refuses to intervene because he or she feels that the rights to life of five people and of one person are equally inviolable, he or she should not be condemned or punished externally, although he or she would feel guilty and remorse for his or her own painful inadequacy in this moral dilemma. Meanwhile, this situation also shows the defect of deontology: even if we strictly follow this or that moral obligation in the conflict of goods, we still cannot ignore its very negative consequences. In the moral dilemma, therefore, no matter how hard the subject makes a choice (including merely as a passive bystander without intervention) based on his or her free will, he or she should bear responsibility for the negative consequences of his or her free choice with varying degrees. This characteristic of no exemption is the crux of all moral dilemmas, and it also shows the inherent limitation of human existence from an angle, especially the severity and helplessness that no one can fully realize his or her free will in the conflict of goods.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 188- [Abstract] ( 532 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1671KB] ( 529 )
196 Shi Jinchuan Ding Feng
Sibling Effects and Educational Outcome in Imperial Chinese Family

The family system emphasized the transmission of family common-property along patrilineal lines in imperial China, and only sons were responsible for parental old-age security and the household labor capacity. The daughters were merely temporary members of birth family, when they got married, they were legally cut off from birth family, physically and financially, and joined their husband family. Since they normally had no responsibilities left for the birth family when married out, having a daughter was usually considered to be a pure economic burden, parents and brothers preferred to take advantage of their unpaid housework to reap a high return. In this paper, we argue that an unmarried sister was a family public good provider since she was a temporary member, and birth family had economic motivations to free ride on her unpaid housework to improve brother’s educational outcome. We use the discrete-time event history analysis method with individual fixed effects based on a unique historical population panel data, the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset-Liaoning (CMGPD-LN), and empirically investigate the relationship between unmarried sisters and brother educational outcome in imperial Chinese family to prove our argument. We find that an unmarried sister increased the probability of her brother to obtain an official student title, and this effect was mainly driven by younger unmarried sister since women married much younger than men. Our argument implies that unmarried sisters should increase brother outcomes on multiple aspects. We use brother’s fertility outcome as another outcome variable, and find that an unmarried sister also increased the probability of her brother giving to another birth. Furthermore, we investigate the effects among male siblings since brother’s age and status may cause different results, and we find that an older brother had a similar effect, while a younger brother was not. This paper has two major contributions. First, by using a unique historical panel data and employing fixed effects model, this paper is able to investigate and focus on the time-varying household effects on individual outcomes, as well as controlling the time-invariant effects within families. In contrary, since most modern census data are cross-sections, previous studies hardly identified the relationships between specific factors and final outcomes without knowing the time-varying effects. Second, this paper provides an alternative explanation to the sibling effects from the perspective of free-riding behavior, while existing mechanism cannot explain our findings since women were not allowed to be educated or take a job, an unmarried sister cannot bring financial support for her brother’s educational expenditure.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 196- [Abstract] ( 569 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1705KB] ( 464 )
205 Feng Guodong Zhang Jingxia
Exploration of Jiaxing Tripitaka in Zhejiang University Library

Jiaxing Tripitaka is a collection of square volumes published by folk monks and believers in Ming and Qing Dynasties. In the catalogue of Jingzhi Huayi (《经值划一》), namely Jiaxing Tripitaka Catalogue, published in 1920, there are 2,090 sorts of Buddhist scriptures. Nevertheless, in the library of Zhejiang University, 679 scriptures of Jiaxing Tripitaka are preserved, which is more than one-third of the total collection. Of those 679 scriptures, Avatamshaka Sutras and Mahasannipata are well preserved, while Nirvana Sutras, Mahayana Vinaya, and Miscellaneous Works of India Authors are in a poor state of preservation. Besides, it is worthy to mention that we can obviously find the red seals on most of the front pages of Jiaxing Tripitaka of Zhejiang University, such as Huangmeisi ji (黄梅寺记), Wuxing Liushi Jiayetang cangshu ji (吴兴刘氏嘉业堂藏书记), Zhang Baixi yin (张百熙印) etc. There are many kinds of documents in Jiaxing Tripitaka collected by Zhejiang University Library which are not included in the catalogue of Jingzhi Huayi, Neither do the Palace Museum, the ″National Central Library″ of Taiwan, the University of Tokyo General Library, Shōmyō Temple and the photoprint of the Jiaxing Dazangjing (Ming Dynasty Version) by Xinwenfeng Publishing Company in Taiwan. Here are a few so as to see a spot of the value. There are ten volumes of Huangbo Mu'an Chanshi Yulu, which was dictated by Xingtao, and compiled by his disciple Daoming etc., but the only preserved volumes now are 6-10 and carved in Ming dynasty. Moreover, there are nine lines on half a page and twenty characters in each line.  Huifu Lingao Chanshi Jiashan Zhulinsi Yulu has two volumes. It was dictated by Benyu, recorded by Yuanyong, and engraved in Qing Dynasty. This book is the quotations of Lingao Benyu when he lived in Zhulin Temple. It is poorly preserved, which could be seen in that it has no cover, ten lines on half a page and twenty characters each line. The two volumes of Ji'anjing Chanshi Yulu was dictated by Ji'an Dajing and compiled by his disciple Yuanji and so on. The preserved volume is the volume 2 which is the engraved script from the 12th year of Kangxi. This book has ten lines on half a page and twenty characters each line.  There are, again, twenty-two volumes of Wuye Hongchuan, which was collected by Zhi'an of Qing Dynasty, and engraved in the 25th year of Kangxi. The life details of the author, Zhi'an, is unknown. The only fact we know is that Zhi'an was the successor of Yishan according to the preface made by Deyi in the 25th year of Kangxi. This book is a collection of Songgu (explaining Zen cases in the form of poetry) in ancient time, with ten lines on half a page and twenty characters each line. Whereas, the Ming script Qingliang Dingmuche Chanshi Yulu has five volumes, which is dictated by Hongche and recorded by his disciple Hongfan. This book has nine lines on half a page and nineteen characters on each line, which is slightly different from the layout of ten lines on half a page and twenty characters on each line.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 205- [Abstract] ( 552 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 7671KB] ( 473 )
213 Xu Saiying
A Study on Henke's Rendering of Chuanxi Lu from the Perspective of Thick Translation

Chuanxi Lu, one of the distinctive representatives of Chinese classics of Neo-Confucianism, is recorded and compiled by Wang Yangming's disciples through collecting his sayings and letters, which encompasses the core views and major philosophical thoughts of Wang Yangming. Frederick G. Henke, an American scholar, first accomplished the translation of Chuanxi Lu which constitutes the most important part of his book titled The Philosophy of Wang Yang-ming published in 1916. This book not merely briefly describes Wang Yangming's legendary life experience, but more importantly introduces Wang Yangming's Xin Xue (the Philosophy of Mind) to the western academia for the first time. The book, as the first translation in the English-speaking world, undoubtedly plays a pioneering role in the overseas dissemination of Yangming's philosophy and has aroused great attention and interest among western scholars. Generally viewed, Henke's translation enormously contributes to better understanding of Chinese philosophy for western scholars and it also changes western academia's thinking that China has no philosophy after the dynasties of Qin and Han. This study, first through the philological research method, comprehensively traces the whole translation process of Henke's rendering of Chuanxi Lu to reveal his motivation of introducing Yangming's thoughts to the west. By also taking the approach of textual reading and textual analysis, based on combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, this study focuses on probing the translation strategy of Henke in rendering Chuanxi Lu and interpreting his translation ideas, hoping to provide some implications for other scholars to translate Chinese classics in future. After probing into the texts, it is found that Henke's translation presents a distinctly thick translation feature. Thick translation aims to locate the text in a rich cultural and linguistic context with annotations and accompanying glosses. Hence, with the help of thick translation the translator can help the target readers to possess the same reading experience as the readers have in the context of source language. In this way, they could better understand the cultural practices and ways of thinking of source language, and eventually to achieve full recognition of the source culture. This study finds that Henke endeavors to construct the context of cultural interaction by adopting thick translation strategy in order to eliminate target reader's strangeness feeling towards foreign culture and tries to establish perfect balance between the source text and the target text, thus achieving the ultimate goal of the interpretation and dissemination of Yangming's philosophy to the west. Precisely, the specific translation path taken by Henke can be summarized as follows: first, the core views of Yangming's philosophy are introduced by adding the preface to make the target reader have preliminary impression; second, by purposefully using annotations and commentary, Henke makes utmost efforts to convey fully the original meaning of the source text, expound Yangming's thoughts and views in detail, and specifically interpret Chinese culture and philosophical terms and so on, all of which embodies Henke's attempts to facilitate the western readers in understanding his rendering better and finally achieving acceptability of his translation; last but not the least, Henke deliberately supplements the complete term glosses at the end of the book, which enables readers to quickly locate the position and easily understand the meaning, this further demonstrates Henke's translation idea of considering the reader. By taking these approaches, Henke sets up multifaceted historical context and atmosphere on purpose so as to create the ″thickness″ of the target text. When dealing with Chinese culture and Yangming's philosophy that western readers are not familiar with, Henke places the source text in a rich culture and linguistic context during translation, and finally makes his translated version accepted and recognized by the target readers.  As the first English translator of Yangming's philosophy, Henke has made significant contribution to the spread of Chinese philosophy in the west. His rendering of Chuanxi Lu by adopting thick translation strategy particularly provides a practical path for the translation and dissemination of Chinese traditional classics.

2020 Vol. 6 (3): 213- [Abstract] ( 527 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1693KB] ( 536 )
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