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Journal of Zhejiang University (Agriculture and Life Sciences)  2023, Vol. 49 Issue (6): 755-764    DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9209.2022.07.182
Research advances in the mechanisms of protecting animals against influenza by probiotics
Meiqing HAN1(),Di WANG1,Xianqi PENG1,Yan LI1,2()
1.Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine/Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, China
2.Hainan Institute of Zhejiang University, Sanya 572025, Hainan, China
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Influenza is an important zoonotic disease. The highly pathogenic avian influenza not only brings enormous losses to China’s livestock breeding industry but also seriously threatens the safety of public health. The ability of influenza viruses to recombine in swine and spread across species barriers poses significant challenges for influenza prevention. Due to the rapid mutation of influenza viruses, the differences between prevalent viruses and vaccine strains reduce the vaccine efficacy. It is necessary to improve the host’s immunity to influenza viruses. Probiotics regulate the balance of intestinal microbiota and promote body health, which is beneficial for protecting animal against influenza viruses. This paper reviewed the mechanisms of anti-influenza virus action of probiotics in animals. The mechanisms include direct or indirect interference with virus attacks by balancing the composition of intestinal flora, regulating the mucosal barrier function of body, and enhancing or suppressing Toll-like receptor-related molecular signaling pathways. This study provides scientific evidence for understanding the mechanisms by which different strains of probiotics combat influenza and for developing more effective anti-influenza strategies.

Key wordsinfluenza virus      probiotics      immunity      “gut-lung axis”     
Received: 18 July 2022      Published: 25 December 2023
CLC:  S85  
Corresponding Authors: Yan LI     E-mail:;
Cite this article:

Meiqing HAN,Di WANG,Xianqi PENG,Yan LI. Research advances in the mechanisms of protecting animals against influenza by probiotics. Journal of Zhejiang University (Agriculture and Life Sciences), 2023, 49(6): 755-764.

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关键词: 流感病毒,  益生菌,  免疫,  “肠-肺轴” 
Fig. 1 Working pattern of the “gut-lung axis” during viral respiratory infectionsThis picture is created with BioRender website (, and the same as Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of possible effect mechanisms of probiotics against influenza virus infections
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