The early Song Dynasty inherited the official system of the Zhou Dynasty,so there is no″seven-rank″selection system for choosing people(Xuanren).At the time,Xuanren was a general term for officials who were waiting to be elected and checked in the candidate list,that is, candidates who were going to be reexamined for their qualifications.There are a wide range of Xuanren,among whom the lowest-ranking Muzhi Linglu officers gradually formed the lowest class in the civil servant series in the Song Dynasty.The civil servant series is composed of three levels:Xuanren,Jingguan,and Chaoguan.This Xuanren refers specifically to the″Muzhi Zhouxian officials″,such as Panguan,Tuiguan,Linglu,and PanSi Bu Wei,etc.It is divided into seven ranks,which may determine the official ranks and the salaries of the Xuanren. However,among the county officials in the Song Dynasty,there are also Muzhi officials,such as Jiedu Panguan,Jiedu Tuiuan,Guancha Zhishi,Guancha Tuiguan,etc.,who will formally assume office. On the other hand, they function not only as Xuanren, but also as local government officials.The two are easily confused and need to be identified.When official system was restructured in Yuanfeng period(AD 1080 1082),Jingguan and Chaoguan's official ranks were changed to Yuanfeng Jilu ranks,but the Xuanren of their official ranks could not be changed.During the second year of Huizong Chongning(AD 1103),the seven ranks were changed from Jiangshilang to Chengwulang,thus ending the disorder of the dual function of Xuanren.The Muzhi Zhouxian Officials were abolished as the function of Xuanren,and they were combined into a unified,uniform local government officials.In the Northern Song Dynasty, the Muzhi Zhouxian Officials have a complex structure and multiple functions.Many scholars have made many achievements in the study of Xuanren of the Northern Song Dynasty,but comprehensive studies from the perspective of the rank of Xuanren are inadequate. Therefore,there is still some vagueness.For example,the differences between the Quanzhu Xuanren and Jieguan Xuanren, the differences between the Shixian Xuanren and Muzhi Zhouxian officials,the differences between the Muzhi Zhouxian officials of the same name and different positions,and the change of the Jilu Xuanren are all to be further studied.From the perspective of Xuanren titles,this paper provides a foundational all-round study on the evolution of the functions of Muzhi Zhouxian officials in the Northern Song Dynasty,and tries to clarify some ambiguities that existed in the Muzhi Zhouxian officials in the Song Dynasty.
龚延明. 宋代幕职州县官双重职能的分与合[J]. 浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版), 2020, 6(4): 65-.
Gong Yanming. The Division and Integration of the Dual Functions of theMuzhiZhouxian Officials in the Song Dynasty. JOURNAL OF ZHEJIANG UNIVERSITY, 2020, 6(4): 65-.