Epitaph is generally composed of two parts : Zhiwen,which was called Xu in the ancient times ,and Mingwen ,or simply Ming . These two parts are different forms correlated with each other . However ,from ancient times to now ,different scholars have had different opinions . Some hold that the distinction of Zhi and Ming originated from the standard and non-standard style of epitaph . Some think that Zhi and Ming are the same thing . As their relationship is still puzzling many scholars ,it is an urgent task to clarify it . The progressive richness of research results on text styles and newly unearthed epitaphs ,especially the sustained excavation of the epitaphs of the Tang Dynasty ,which can be considered as prevailing and mature ,provides more materials to the researches on the features ,functions of Zhiwen and Mingwenas well as their correlations . The first step to clarify the relationship between Zhiwen and Mingwenis to find out the main purpose of the ancients in using epitaphs . There are two main purposes :one is recording events and the other is praising the virtues of the dead . These two functions are undertaken by Zhiwen and Mingwen respectively . From the beginning of the adoption of epitaph ,Zhiwen aimed at recording events ,while Mingwen aimed at singing the praises . Related with the purpose of creating epitaph ,and seen from the process of evolvement ,Zhiwenand Mingwen can reflect the different styles and functions of epitaphs . Certainly ,the distinction between Zhiwenand Mingwenis closely related with their origins . This paper tries to distinguish between the respective features and functions of Zhiwen and Mingwenin the forms of the texts and the origins of creation .As for text styles ,Zhiwenis more like an essay ,and the narration style is more flexible ,while Mingwen is rhymed and more like poetry .As for the creation origin ,Zhiwenis partly influenced by historical biographic literature ,while Mingwen originated from Zhongding Ming of remote ages . All these are obvious distinctions between Zhiwen and Mingwen. However ,an epitaph consists of both parts ,so they are closely related with each other . This paper induces and summarizes their correlations systematically and believes that their relationship can be reflected from four aspects : Mingwenis repetition or abbreviation of Zhiwen;Mingwen is supplement of Zhiwen;Zhiwen and Mingwen have their respective particular emphasis ,but their aims are the same;Zhiwen and Mingwen blend into one harmonious whole . This study may help us gain a new view on the complicated situation that the dividing line of writing styles after Wei ,Jing and South-North Dynasties fused and separated in the Tang Dynasty .
孟国栋 胡可先. 论墓志文体志文和铭文的特点、功用及相互关系----以新出土唐代墓志为中心的考察[J]. 浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版), 2012, 42(6): 49-59.
Meng Guodong Hu Kexian. The Discourse on the Feature ,Function and Correlation between Zhiwen and Mingwenin Epitaphs :A Case Study on the Unearthed Epitaphs of the Tang Dynasty. , 2012, 42(6): 49-59.