Since big data products are essentially algorithmic products, they do not have qualified authors in the sense of copyright law, nor do they meet the requirements of originality of works, and thus cannot be endowed with copyright. Moreover, network operators can enjoy property rights over their big data products which are the result of their labor. Big data products have become market trading objects with commodity exchange value at present, which can bring commercial benefits to network operators. Finally, big data products should be given property ownership as they possess four powers. Judging from the production process and appearance of big data products, first, big data products are generated through a specific algorithm, which is independent of big data products and does not belong to the content of big data products. In fact, algorithms are to big data products are what machinery and equipment are to general industrial products. Second, the theory of intangible property rights can be applied to big data products. The discussion on the right exercise boundary of big data products is ultimately about the network operators’ right boundary to process the collected personal information data of users when producing and disposing of big data products. In the process of collecting and using personal information data, according to relevant regulations, it is legal for network operators to obtain and use the data according to the purpose, method and scope agreed upon in the regulations under the condition that the rules publicized by the platform are not invalid. If the network operator intends to dispose of the big data products processed from personal information data to others, there must be two requisites: First, the ″rules for providing personal information to others″ must be highlighted in the notes for users provided by the network operator while collecting information, and must have the consent of users. Second, the personal information data provided to other people are anonymized, and they no longer have one-to-one correspondence with users, cannot be identified as from specific individuals, and cannot be recovered. While the commercial value of big data products brings huge commercial benefits to network operators, there are also some commercial entities that violate laws, regulations and market rules, steal other people’s work for profit, and infringe upon the legitimate rights and interests of network operators. As the property ownership attribute of big data products has not been established, network operators can only request judicial relief according to the anti-unfair competition law or the tort liability law. However, in the long run, disputes involving data ownership and the ownership of big data products will increase day by day, and the issue of their rights attribute will become the focus of disputes that cannot be bypassed in judicial practice. The proposed theoretical assumption of property rights protection can better safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of big data product network operators and inject more vitality into the vigorous development of the big data industry. First of all, network operators can oppose anyone except themselves according to laws based on property ownership. The reduction of network operators’ burden of proof is more conducive to the relief of losses of their legitimate rights and interests. Secondly, network operators can exercise their right of claim in rem according to the characteristics of big data products and expand their right of claim base to the greatest extent. Finally, due to the active protection ensured by property ownership, network operators can further increase the commercial value of big data products.
李永明 戴敏敏. 大数据产品的权利属性及法律保护研究[J]. 浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版), 2020, 6(2): 12-.
Li Yongming Dai Minmin. Research on Rights Attributes and Legal Protection of Big Data Products. JOURNAL OF ZHEJIANG UNIVERSITY, 2020, 6(2): 12-.