A new paradox in China is that on one hand, currency over-issue and deflation coexist. Currency has been over-issued, resulting in an M2/GDP ratio that is far above the normal level and ranks among the highest in the world. Thus, a traditional monetary theory would predict that the CPI and inflation would quickly increase. However, the CPI has decreased in the past few years. This paper attempts to explain this paradox by applying the theory of New Monetarism, a new monetary theory based on the search-match method. Unlike other monetary theories, New Monetarism studies the effects of financial friction on the macroeconomy within the search-match framework. State-owned enterprises usually have low productivity due to their principal-agent problem, thus more currencies (capital) are needed when producing the same number of products. Nevertheless, state-owned enterprises have close political connections with the government, so that they can easily get loans from banks. On the contrary, despite their high productivity, private-owned enterprises suffer more severe fiscal constraints due to their relatively small scales and high risks. Therefore, other things being equal, financial intermediates are more willing to lend money to state-owned enterprises. In the meantime, state-owned enterprises prefer to relend the money to private-owned enterprises because of the relatively higher productivity of the latter. Therefore, the resulting financial friction is the key to understanding the strange monetary phenomenon in China. When there is a weak financial friction, the returns on the relent money to private-owned enterprises are higher than those used by state-owned enterprises. Thus state-owned enterprises would increase their profit margins by lending the money to private-owned enterprises. As a consequence, CPI is likely to increase when the lending ratio increases. When there is a large financial friction, it is more profitable for state-owned enterprises to operate by themselves, rather than investing in private-owned enterprises. In this case, profit increase will be achieved when lending is decreased to private-owned enterprises. Investment returns will decrease due to financial friction if there is an increase in the lending ratio to state-owned enterprises. Under these circumstances, CPI will decrease. According to the above analysis, it is possible for monetary excess and currency deflation to exist simultaneously. As a result of the existence of the abnormal currency over-issue problem, the M2/GDP level is higher than that of any period in the past. In order to solve this problem, the government must redirect its effort to its own strategies and launch some new policies to change the structure of the industry. Otherwise, a large number of private-owned enterprises in China will go bankrupt due to a lack of liquidity, which is detrimental to the economic performance, as well as the social stability of China. The policy implications of this paper are listed as follows: First, revitalize the excess capital in state-owned enterprises and allocate it to private-owned enterprises. Second, actively promote deleveraging in society in order to prevent an asset bubble in the market. Third, improve market environment to help private-owned enterprises compete with state-owned enterprises.