This paper comprehensively describes the communication between Korean envoys and the Japanese literati taking the example of the last Chosen Tsushinshi(Joseon Korea Diplomatic Mission to Tokugawa,Japan)and employing eight types of written literature and some other relevant materials from three sources,namely,Gozan Gakumonsou of Itei-an Temple,Edo j ukan(officials under Confucianism)and the civil literati.There are three kinds of written materials about the conversation between Gozan Gakumonsou of Itei-an Temple in Tsushima Han and the Korean correspondence envoys,namely, ChousenjinShifu(also known as Shinbi Wakan Shuushouroku),the screen attached with the poetries of Korean correspondence envoys at Koushou-j i Temple(Kanonj i City, Kagawa Prefecture), and the Shinbi Batou Shouwa. There are three kinds of written conversation materials between the Edo j ukan and the Korean correspondence envoys,which are Sessen Ingo, TaireiYosou and Kyouyo Ichiren(also known as Seiri Hitsudan).There are two kinds of written conversation materials between civil literati and Korean correspondence envoys,which are Keirin Joumei and Shoushuuhitsugo Narabini Shikou.Finally there are some related materials which are travel notes of Japanese literati,mainly including the Tsushima Nikki by Kusaba Haisen,TsuiyuuNikki by Higuchi Shisen,and HakuyuManzai by Miyake Kitsuen.In 1811,the Korean correspondents visited Japan.Although the meeting was diplomatic, held in a border area of Japan,Tsushima Island,cultural exchanges and collisions between the two countries were not absent from proceedings.The Japanese″cultural exchange group″was composed of Hayashi Jussai who was Daigaku no Kami(Director of the Bureau of Education), Koga Seiri,an official under Confucianism,and their disciples.The Japanese group internally selected members qualified to participate in written conversations,by systematically rej ecting applications from group leaders,and the Tsushima Han(local government)considered whether folk people were suitably educated to participate in written conversations.By strictly controlling the quantity and quality of the participants,Hayashi Jussai ensured the quality level of the Japanese group,stopping what had become a trend of exaggeration and ostentation,which often competed with″two hundred rhymes″or even″eight hundred rhymes″.In addition,Hayashi Jussai and his party conducted thorough preparations for the written conversations with the Korean envoys by practicing with the Japanese literati to improve the speed of composing poems, carefully studying cases and past hospitality practices of previous written conversations between Japanese and Korean envoys,copying Korean envoys'poems from Gozan Gakumonsou of Itei-an Temple to learn about their poetry level,and dispatched disciples as civil scholars to gather information on many occasions,so as to know the Korean party well and with confidence.The later period of Edo was a time of overall prosperity in various cultural fields in Japan, and the mentality of Japanese scholars in their interactions with Korean envoys changed accordingly.Several″confrontations″of written conversations with Korean envoys,from form to content,were like an expression of a″Cultural Revolution″for the Japanese side at that time. This is the underlying reason why Hayashi Jussai and Matsuzaki Kodore revived the old rites, prioritized public interests,requiring that officials,costumes,etiquette and other aspects should be equally arranged,and also reordered the poetry singing.The erudition and modesty of Koga Seiri had a significant effect of″self-prestige without being shocked or proclaimed″.Recent Japan-Korea reciprocal diplomatic exchanges,where Korea relied on its cultural advantages to offset Japan's military superiority,became gradually imbalanced.It was a turning point in the ongoing intercultural competition,significant in the trend of Japan-Korea diplomacy.
王连旺. 1811年日朝外交中的交流机制与文化主导权争夺[J]. 浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版), 2020, 6(4): 110-.
Wang Lianwang. The Communication Mechanism and Cultural Dominancein Japan-Korea Diplomacy in 1 8 1 1. JOURNAL OF ZHEJIANG UNIVERSITY, 2020, 6(4): 110-.