Modern thinking and postmodern thinking have had their impact on psychological counseling theory ,practice , research and training . In theory , they impact the philosophical and scientific foundation and counseling approaches of psychological counseling , mainly demonstrated in the conflict between objective positivism and subjective constructivism . In practice , they influence counselors'professional self-concept , counselor-client relationship , counseling behaviors and ethics , mainly showed in the contradiction between detached objective observation and active participation . In terms of research , they form different paradigms , mainly presented in the conflict between quantitative and qualitative methodologies . For counselor training , they provide different models , mainly exhibited in the opposition between focusing on procedural techniques and emphasizing individualized experience . Despite these discrepancies , they have some aspects in common . To go beyond modern and postmodern thinking requires integration under the guidance of dialectical materialism .