1.浙江大学 中国农村发展研究院, 浙江 杭州 310058
2.浙江大学 管理学院, 浙江 杭州 310058

[作者简介] 1.程铭达(https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2629-5604),男,浙江大学中国农村发展研究院博士研究生,主要从事贫困问题、农业经济与政策研究; 2.党敬淇(https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3830-5235),男,浙江大学管理学院博士研究生,主要从事环境与健康政策评价、技术进步与农业经济发展研究; 3.叶春辉(https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3427-7094),男,浙江大学中国农村发展研究院副教授,主要从事农业经济与农村发展研究。

The Influence of Perception Bias of Peasants' Household Income Status on Children's Mental Health: Theoretical Logic and Empirical Evidence
Cheng Mingda1, Dang Jingqi2, Ye Chunhui1
China Academy for Rural Development, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Abstract

China's sustained, rapid economic development and structural transformation since the Reform and Opening-up have brought about social problems such as the increasing cost of raising children, the shortage of high-quality educational resources and the growing pressure on employment. These social issues make Chinese children face an environment of growing up with increasingly fierce competition and multiple pressures of study and life, resulting in a large number of children with psychological problems such as anxiety, fear, neurasthenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression. Furthermore, rural areas have become increased rates of children's mental health problems, with added factors of left-behind children and rural household poverty caused by the structural imbalances between urban and rural development. It is therefore of great theoretical and practical significance to study the factors affecting children's mental health in rural areas so as to promote healthy growth, educational improvement, human capital accumulation, and social stability. The existing literature mainly focuses on the objective material conditions of rural households, such as real income. They believed that the rural children's mental health is closely related to household characteristics, and the improvement of household income level plays an important role in promoting children's mental health. There is however, a research gap that the subjective cognition and evaluation of the income level and economic status of the rural household members, especially the head or the financial supervisor of the household, was ignored.
This study is based on the perspective of household income status perception bias and the D-K effect, and we have constructed a representative behavior model of household income status perception bias for theoretical analysis, and we have also adopted the data from Chinese household tracking surveys in 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018 to empirically analyze the mechanism and channel of household income status perception bias on children's mental health. The research results reveal that: (1) There is a significant negative correlation between household income level and income status perception bias, and poor households are likely to have income status perception bias; (2) The income status perception bias of poor households has a significant positive impact on their gift-giving expenditure and a significant negative impact on the expenditure for children's education: a greater overestimation of poor household's income status leads to more gift spending and less expenditure for children's education, which will change the structures of household expenditure; (3) The poor household income status perception bias has a significant negative impact on the mental health status of their children, whereas the household expenditure for children's education has a significant positive impact on children's mental health status: a greater overestimation of poor household's income status results in their children's greater mental pressure. The above results remained robust under different poverty groupings, variable types, clustering hierarchies and regression models.
This study provides a new story for children's mental health-related research, based on the unique economic and cultural background of China, the world's largest developing country. This study specially spotlights the rural households, especially poor rural households, and enriches the conclusions of existing research from new perspectives such as perception bias and household expenditure structure, thus complementing the latest literature on the accounts and influence mechanisms of children's mental health. Furthermore, the policy implications based on empirical results are of great significance to improve the mental health of children in poor rural households in developing countries, and contribute to promoting the sustainable development of households and child welfare.

Keyword: rural households; income status; perception bias; expenditure structure; rural children's mental health

(一) 家庭特征对儿童心理健康的影响

(二) 感知偏差及其对行为的影响

U(x, e)(1)

max H, r, eU(H, r, e)(2)

s.t. e-(qH+wr)=0(3)

$U~$(x, e|e')=(1-PU(H, r, e)+P× U(H, r, e')(4)

maxH, r, e[1-p(e)]× U(H, r, e)+p(e)× U0(5)

s.t. e-(qH+wr)=0

Biasfkt=α +β 1Incomefkt+δ 'Xfkt+φ fm+λ kt+ϵfkt(6)

Giftfkt=α +β 2Biasfkt+δ 'Xfkt+φ fm+λ kt+ϵfkt(7)

Edu_costifkt=α +β 3Biasfkt+δ 'Xfkt+θ 'Xikt+φ fm+λ kt+ϵifkt(8)

MHifkt=α +β 4Biasfkt+β 5Edu_costifkt+δ 'Xfkt+θ 'Xikt+μ 'Xifkt+φ fm+λ kt+ϵifkt(9)

(一) 农户家庭收入水平对其收入地位感知偏差的影响

(二) 农户收入地位感知偏差对家庭支出结构的影响

(三) 农户收入地位感知偏差对儿童心理健康的影响

(四) 稳健性检验

1.采用不同的贫困认定标准划分贫困组与非贫困组样本。与上文采用《中国农村贫困监测报告》中提供的国家标准进行贫困认定不同, 表7的(1)— (3)列报告了以低于各县/区农村家庭人均可支配收入中位数作为标准认定的(相对)贫困农户家庭的面板双重固定效应回归结果。相关回归系数与表4表6中基准回归结果符号相同, 同样支持了相关假设, 表明原模型与结果保持稳健。

2.分别采用家庭人情支出和儿童教育支出占家庭人均总支出的比重进入回归。将上文表4表5中家庭人情支出和儿童教育支出额度替换为家庭人情支出和儿童教育支出分别占家庭人均总支出的比重进行面板双重固定效应回归, 所得结果报告在表7的(4)(5)列。回归结果及解释均与表4表5中的基准回归保持一致, 表明原模型与结果保持稳健。