Abstract：As we all know, language is a kind of system, which is not only reflected in the whole language but also in each unit of the language. In semantics, the study of the core meaning of Chinese lexicon reveals the internal relationship among entries. In grammar, Chinese disyllabic words have specific diverse structural relationships. How do language units relate to one another? At the same time, various units of language do not exist in isolation, but interact with each other. There is a profound correlation between semantics and grammar, i.e. the synchronous word-formation law of disyllabic words on the basis of the same word formation mode is a manifestation of the systematic interrelatedness among multiple units. Its production mechanism lies in the consistency of word forming morphemes’ core meaning or other meanings, and in the imitation and analogy mechanism of word creation.
To what extent is the application value of synchronous word formation? It has been discussed hitherto on the basis of only a limited and scattered type of Chinese polysyllabic words. The methodology that we have employed in reaching conclusions has consisted in integrating and extending ideas from four research traditions: method of induction and analysis; comparison method; deductive method; and a mixture of the synchronic and the diachronic. By applying the method of induction and analysis, the polysyllabic time word “Lingchen (凌晨)” was taken into consideration as the starting point. Analyzing the relationship among each meaning of “Ling (凌)”, especially its core meaning and its collocation use cases in the polysyllabic words, sheds new light upon the word formation. It is concluded that “Lingchen (凌晨)” is a verb-object time word, indicating that it is approaching dawn, and “Lingchen (凌晨)”, “Lingdan (凌旦)” and “Lingxiao (凌晓)” all share the same meaning and structure;
By taking a large-scale comparative and deductive perspective, the prediction of synchronous word formation was tested on multiple Chinese time words and found to be consistently well supported. Three groups of verb-object time words, representing the meaning of morning or evening, are systematically juxtaposed and can be distinguished accordingly into three types such as the following on the basis of subtle semantic differences in verb morphemes: meaning of impending, meaning of tendency, and meaning of touch. Specifically, the type of time words “Lingchen (凌晨)”, “Bomu (薄暮)”, “Bimu (逼暮)”, “Qinchen (侵晨)”, “Ruye (入夜)”, “Jinmu (近暮)”, “Bangwan (傍晚)” and others are account for the meaning of impending. The type of time words “Xiangchen (向晨)”, “Yingchen (迎晨)”, “Toumu (投暮)”, “Maohun (冒昏)” and others are account for the meaning of tendency. The type of time words “Fuxiao (拂晓)”, “Fuchen (扶晨)”, “Aiwan (挨晚)”, “Cahei (擦黑）”, “Yixi (依夕)” and so on are account for the meaning of touch.
At the same time, through a combination of synchronic and diachronic research, it is argued that verb-object time words exhibit identical development directions and word-formation sequences, i.e., initially a verb object phrase structure, which means “approaching dawn” or “close to night” develops into a word structure, which means early morning or evening.
Above all, we argue that disyllabic time words exemplify the law of synchronous word formation, that is, they all generate words according to a same word formation mode, which also confirms the concept of coordination and systematicness of word meaning and morphology. From a diachronic point of view, the extension tracks of different words are roughly parallel, which does not mean that the extension of meaning or the speed and era of word formation are completely the same, that is, the synchronization process itself is not necessarily identical, but they are completely equivalent in sequence of word formation; According to morphemes, it can be concluded that there are three types and levels of synchronous word formations such as the following:
(1) Same morpheme+synonymous morpheme=synonymous synchronous word formation (narrow sense)
(2) Same morpheme+same morpheme=same synchronous word formation (basically)
(3) Synonymous morpheme+homogeneous (semantic) morpheme=homogeneous synchronous word formation (broad sense)
In a nutshell, when a disyllabic word is put in front of us, it is as a matter of fact a kind of phenomenon, a micro synchronous word formation system, and could be possibly made sense of the synchronous word formation theory. With the result that this systematical and coordinated theory is not only a summary, which will make the interpretation and teaching of disyllabic words more scientific and reduce a blind subjective interpretation of the text, but also a formulated prediction, which can help us take an eye of a series of related words as a whole, rather than treating each one of the words in isolation. The impact of the synchronous word formation on Chinese has been fundamental.