Confucianism may include two integrated parts : the construction and the communication of virtue knowledge .Goals and means of communication have been embedded into the construction of virtue knowledge ;and the connotation of virtue knowledge has been practiced when it is communicated . They both aim at constructing a value which can be shared by everybody in society via communication,thus a common culture can be reconstructed and the society can be integrated . This communication thinking results from the two-thousand-year influence of the Analects and Confucianism .The modern value of communication thought of the Analects and Confucianism is that it differentiates transmission of information and value .In other words,communication of virtue knowledge and of observation should be distinguished .Thus it opens up a new path for transmission of social inheritance,which is considered to be an important function of communication .It also opens up a new path for the reconstruction of the Chinese value system .This paper employs the method of″creative hermeneutics″from Fu Weixun . The Analects contains four communication modes :internalization mode of value communication (to explain Li with Renand to implant emotion into reason) ;emotion mode of morality communication (just like that all the stars revolve around Polaris and that where the wind passes,the grass bends) ;extrapolation mode of interpersonal communication (Ren includes Zhong and Shu which refer to the consideration of others) ;situation mode of knowledge communication (one does not open up the truth to one who is not eager to get knowledge,nor helps out any one who is not anxious to explain himself) .In internalization mode,Ren,which originates in natural humanity,is the foundation of Li,and Li is an approach of Ren as value of Ren is practiced by the behavior of Li .In emotion mode,the communication of De (morality) in society includes″adsorption″ effect (just like that all the stars revolve around Polaris) and″touch″effect (where the wind passes,the grass bends) .″Adsorption″is caused by″touch″and″touch″contributes to″adsorption .″In extrapolation mode,humans need subjectivity of self-discipline (what you do not want done to yourself,do not do to others) and subjectivity of self-extrapolation (the man of perfect virtue,wishing to be established himself,seeks also to establish others ;wishing to be enlarged himself,he seeks also to enlarge others) .In situation mode,both the subjectivities of communication and receiver should be emphasized so that communication can achieve better results . A receiver becomes a communicator once he has subjectivity,and new knowledge will be created in the process of interaction .The deep structure behind those four modes is communication thinking of Confucianism,which follows one principle and runs through it all .Firstly,it emphasizes both subjectivity of communicator and receiver ; secondly,it has a practical spirit which pursues consistence of knowledge and action ;thirdly ;it includes a practical reason which mixed emotion and reason .Human (communicator and receiver) is the most important element in communication for Confucianism .However,content of communication gives service to human and media and symbol are only the means of communication .This means process of communication should be considered as early as the knowledge of virtue is constructed .The two questions are how virtue knowledge can be accepted by most people and whether it has the foundation of humanity . Therefore,Confucianism pursues a balance of emotion and reason and of knowledge and practice from the beginning to the end .Because the Chinese lack the tradition of asylum by gods and a perfect religious system,and also due to the less attention to behavior rather than language,the subjectivity of communicator,especially the receiver,is highly emphasized .
邵培仁 姚锦云. 传播模式论:《论语》的核心传播模式与儒家传播思维[J]. 浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版), 2014, 44(4): 56-75.
Shao Peiren Yao Jinyun. On the Mode of Communication :Core Communication Mode of the Analects and Confucianism Communication. JOURNAL OF ZHEJIANG UNIVERSITY, 2014, 44(4): 56-75.