Research on community relationships in mixed small-population ethnic groups has been an important tradition of social anthropology in the West .It tends to exaggerate the conflicts and boundaries between groups and draw ideological conclusions with obvious dualistic″self″and ″other″binary,which has led to the misunderstanding and misleading of human relationships . Based on my five-year participant-observation and study on the oral materials,this paper aims to summarize the structural characteristics between the ethnic groups through an ethnographical analysis of a mixed community,and to explore the attributes that reflect the multi-layer subjectivities and the symbiosis of the ethnic groups .This paper thus strives to reveal a cognitive paradigm corresponding to the human existence that goes beyond dualistic and separatist understanding . In a historical perspective,we find that the formation of the symbiosis pattern had deep material drive,and that the complementary symbiosis was the logic foundation for pluralism to turn to an organic whole .In the process of cognitive,emotional and ethical interactions between ethnic groups,the shared inter-ethnic domain of symbiosis came into being,which implies the inherent requirements for the groups to spontaneously forma unity of their existences and values . Once the ethnic symbiotic structure stabilized in both senses of time and space under certain material conditions,it can provide a set of symbol systems under which people can operate,and especially when ethnic groups appear as emotional subjects,an adjusting mechanism can play an important role between the symbiotic groups . It is certain that close contacts between ethnic groups do not mean assimilation or perishing of a certain group . On the contrary,heterogeneity is even more required for the ethnic subjectivities in the symbiotic structure .We also start to realize that the process of ethnic symbiosis is different from the process of a single ethnic group's development,but is synchronous optimization and common development between groups .At the same time,ethnic symbiosis is not only a process that produces new patterns of symbiosis but also forms a new material structure so as to promote the ethnic relations to a higher orderly level . An even richer content of ethnic harmony has gone beyond the pages here .What we can achieve in this paper is to summarize general principles of theoretical reconstruction that can better deal with the relationship between particularity and universality .It is well known that the complexity of globalization has brought new challenges for us to construct harmonious ethnic relations that require researchers to pursue good academic inquiry and scientific research methods in order to grasp and interpret the ethnic relations and their microscopic behaviors,and to provide a reasonable perspective and method for the construction of harmonious ethnic relations .This paper is our effort in this direction .