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Advance and development in research of bacterial drug-resistance signaling mechanism and multiple antigenic peptide-based vaccines
SUN Ai-Hua, FANG Jia-Qi, YAN Jie
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 125-130.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.001
Abstract( 340 )   HTML (   PDF(728KB)( 338 )
Distribution of drug inactive enzyme genes in bacterial isolates and mechanism of its induction and inhibition
WU Yi-Fei, SUN Ai-Hua, ZHAO Jin-Fang, GE Yu-Mei, YAN Jie
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 131-140.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.002
Abstract( 407 )   HTML (   PDF(1249KB)( 251 )
Objective: To determine the distribution and the predominant gene carrying model of drug inactive enzyme genes in bacterial isolates,and the mechanism of its induction and inhibition.
Methods: The β-lactam,aminoglycosides and macrolides inactive enzyme genes were detected by PCR and sequencing in S.aureus, E.coli,K.pncumoniae, A.baumanii and E.cloacae isolates.The expression of inactive enzyme genes were examined by real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR when the bacterial isolates were treated with antibiotics or a histidine kinase blocker closantel.
Results: In 63 isolates of E.coli,4 kinds of β-lactam,2 aminoglycosides and 1 macrolides inactive enzyme-encoding genes were detected and the predominant gene-carrying models were [TEM+CTX-M]+aac(3)-Ⅱ+mphA(25.4%) and [TEM+CTX-M]+ aac(6′)-Ⅰb(20.6%).In 24 isolates of S.aureus,2 kinds of β-lactam and 3 aminoglycosides inactive enzyme-encoding genes were detected and the predominant gene-carrying models were aph(3′)(41.7%) or aac(6)-Ⅰe-aph(2)-Ⅰa(25.0%).In 28 isolates of K.pncumoniae,4 kinds of β-lactam and 2 aminoglycosides inactive enzyme-encoding genes were detected and the predominant gene-carrying models were [TEM+SHV]+[aac(6′)-Ⅰb+aac(3)-Ⅱ](28.6%) and [TEM+SHV]+[aac(6′)-Ⅰb+aac(3)-Ⅱ]+ mphA(17.8%).The
isolates of A.baumanii and E.cloacae also had a predominant model to carry 2 or 3 kinds of inactive enzyme-encoding genes.1/4 MIC of penicillin,cefotaxime or streptomycin induced the up-regulation of expression of 3 β-lactam or 4 aminoglycosides inactive enzyme-encoding genes(P<0.05),and this effect was inhibited by closantel(P<0.05).
Conclusions: The bacterial isolates frequently carry multiple kinds of inactive enzyme-encoding genes with different predominant gene-carrying models.Low concentration antibiotics can induce the up-regulation of inactive enzyme gene expression,which can be inhibited by histidine kinase blocker.
Role of fliY gene in pathogenicity-associated chemotaxis and colonization of Campylobacter jejuni
LOU Hong-Qiang, GE Yu-Mei, ZHANG Jin-Liang, YAN Jie, ZHAO Jin-Fang
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 141-148.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.003
Abstract( 297 )   HTML (   PDF(1541KB)( 230 )

Objective: To construct a knockout fliY gene mutant strain of Campylobacter jejuni for determining the role of FliY protein in flagellar movement related to bacterial motility,chemotaxis and colonization.
Methods: The plasmid pBluescript-Ⅱ-SK was used to construct the suicide plasmid; according to homologous exchange principle,the suicide plasmid was utilized to generate fliY gene knockout mutant(fliY) in Campylobacter jejuni strain NCTC11168.The fliY mutant strain was identified by PCR,sequencing and Western blotting.The chemotactic and colonizing abilities of fliY mutant were determined by colony migration test and bacterial chemotactic test in vitro, and colonization test in jejunum of mice.
Results: The fliY- mutant strain showed a growth curve in medium similar to that of wild-type strain.PCR,sequencing and Western blotting assay confirmed that the fliY gene in fliY- mutant was deleted.Compared to the wild-type strain,the colonies of fliY- mutant on semisolid plate were much smaller(P<0.05),the chemotactic ability of fliY mutant towards sodium deoxycholate and bovine bile was significantly attenuated(P<0.05),and the number of fliY mutant(CFU) in jejunal tissue specimens of the infected mice was significantly decreased(P<0.05).
Conclusion: The function of C.jejuni fliY gene refers to controlling flagellar movement,which is involved in bacterial chemotaxis and colonization.

Multidrug resistance of enteric bacilli and its relation to structure and molecular evolution of variable region in resistance-related class-Ⅰ integron
WANG Huan, BAO Qi-Yu, SUN Ai-Hua, ZHAO Jin-Fang, GE Yu-Mei, YAN Jie
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 149-155.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.004
Abstract( 277 )   HTML (   PDF(1002KB)( 245 )
Objective: To investigate the drug resistance of enteric bacilli and its relation to the drug resistance gene cassette in the variable region and molecular evolution of class-Ⅰ integron.
Methods: K-B assay was applied to measure the drug resistance of E.coli,E.cloacae and A.baumannii isolated against twelve antibiotics.The class-Ⅰ integron and drug resistance gene cassettes in the variable region of the integron were detected by PCR and sequencing of amplification products.The molecular evolution of drug resistance genes in the class-Ⅰ integrons was analyzed using Clustal X and MEGA software.
Results: 54.2%-100% of A.baumannii isolates were resistant to the penicillin and cephem antibiotics,while E.coli and E.cloacae isolates had resistance rates of 41.6%-62.5% to cephem antibiotics.62.5%(15/24) of E.coli,67.9%(19/28) of E.cloacae and 83.3%(20/24) of A.baumannii isolates were positive for class-Ⅰ integrons.81.5%(44/54) of class-Ⅰ integrons showed 4 different single band spectrums and the other class-Ⅰ integrons displayed 3 different double band spectrums.In the drug resistance gene cassettes in variable regions of class-Ⅰ integrons there were 7 types in 4 groups of drug resistance genes,including aac(6′), sad(3″),aad(2″),cat(4′) and dfr(types 7,A13 and 15), which induced the resistance to aminoglycosides and sulfamido antibiotics and chloromycin.The class-Ⅰ integrons in the isolates might be divided into 4 molecular evolution groups according to the diversity of dihydrofolate reductase encoding gene sequences.
Conclusion: The enteric bacilli have a high drug resistance and frequently carry class-Ⅰ integrons with 7 drug resistance gene cassettes which present 4 different evolutionary pathways.
Expression changes of major outer membrane protein antigens in Leptospira interrogans during infection and its mechanism
ZHENG Lin-Li, GE Yu-Mei, HU Wei-Lin, YAN Jie
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 156-163.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.005
Abstract( 311 )   HTML (   PDF(2423KB)( 235 )
Objective: To determine expression changes of major outer membrane protein(OMP) antigens of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar Lai strain Lai during infection of human macrophages and its mechanism.
Methods: OmpR encoding genes and OmpR-related histidine kinase(HK) encoding gene of L.interrogans strain Lai and their functional domains were predicted using bioinformatics technique.mRNA level changes of the leptospiral major OMP-encoding genes before and after infection of human THP-1 macrophages were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR.Effects of the OmpR-encoding genes and HK-encoding gene on the expression of leptospiral OMPs during infection were determined by HK-peptide antiserum block assay and closantel inhibitive assays.
Results: The bioinformatics analysis indicated that LB015 and LB333 were referred to OmpR-encoding genes of the spirochete,while LB014 might act as a OmpR-related HK-encoding gene.After the spirochete infecting THP-1 cells,mRNA levels of leptospiral lipL21,lipL32 and lipL41 genes were rapidly and persistently down-regulated(P<0.01),whereas mRNA levels of leptospiral groEL,mce,loa22 and ligB genes were rapidly but transiently up-regulated(P<0.01).The treatment with closantel and HK-peptide antiserum partly reversed the infection-based down-regulated mRNA levels of lipL21 and lipL48 genes(P<0.01).Moreover,closantel caused a decrease of the infection-based up-regulated mRNA levels of groEL,mce,loa22 and ligB genes(P<0.01).
Conclusions: Expression levels of L.interrogans strain Lai major OMP antigens present notable changes during infection of human macrophages.There is a group of OmpR- and HK-encoding genes which may play a major role in down-regulation of expression levels of partial OMP antigens during infection.
Prokaryotic expression of Leptospira interrogans groEL gene and immunoprotection of its products in hamsters
LI Xiao-Yu, WANG Yin-Huan, YAN Jie, CHENG Dong-Qing
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 164-170.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.006
Abstract( 313 )   HTML (   PDF(953KB)( 253 )

Objective: To construct a prokaryotic expression system of groEL gene of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagia serovar Lai strain Lai,and to determine the immunoprotective effect of recombinant GroEL protein(rGroEL) in LVG hamsters.
Methods: The groEL gene was amplified by high fidelity PCR and the amplification products were then sequenced.A prokaryotic expression system of groEL gene was constructed using routine genetic engineering technique.SDS-PAGE plus Bio-Rad Gel Image Analyzer was applied to examine the expression and dissolubility of rGroEL protein while Ni-NTA affinity chromatography was used to extract the expressed rGroEL.The immunoprotective rate in rGroEL-immunized LVG hamsters was determined after challenge with L.interrogans strain Lai.The cross agglutination titers of sera from immunized hamsters with different L.interrogans serogroups were detected using MAT.
Results: The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the cloned groEL gene were the same as those reported in GenBank.The constructed prokaryotic expression system of groEL gene expressed soluble rGroEL.The immunoprotective rates of 100 and 200 μg rGroEL in LVG hamsters were 50.0% and 75.0%,respectively.The sera from the rGroEL-immunized LVG hamsters agglutinated all the L.interrogans serogroups tested with different levels.
Conclusion: The GroEL protein is a genus-specific immunoprotective antigen of L.interrogans and can be used to develop an universal genetically engineering vaccine of Leptospira.

Distribution of Salmonella paratyphi A pagC gene and immunoprotective effect of its recombinant expressed products
ZHANG Jia, FAN Xin-Li, GE Yu-Mei, YAN Jie, SUN Ai-Hua
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 171-176.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.007
Abstract( 303 )   HTML (   PDF(755KB)( 262 )
Objective: To determine the distribution and sequence conservation of pagC gene in Salmonella paratyphi A isolates,and the immunogenicity and immonuprotection of its recombinant expression products(rPagC).
Methods: The distribution of pagC gene in Salmonella paratyphi A isolates and its sequence conservation were examined by PCR and sequencing.A prokaryotic expression system of pagC gene was constructed and the expressed rPagC was extracted by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography.SDS-PAGE and Bio-Rad Gel Image Analyzer were applied to examine the expression and yield of rPagC.The antigenicity and immunoreactivity of rPagC were detected by immunodiffusion test,ELISA and Western Blot assay.The immunopretective effect of rPagC against infection of Salmonella paratyphi A in mice was determined,while the agglutinative effect of sera from rPagC-immunized mice was measured by micro-Widal′s test.
Results: All the Salmonella paratyphi A isolates tested had the pagC gene,the similarity of nucleotide and amino acid sequences was 99.1%-100% and 98.4%-100%,respectively.The constructed prokaryotic expression system expressed rPagC with high efficiency.The rPagC immunized rabbit produced a high level antibody and it also combined with antiserum against whole cell of S.paratyphi A to generate a positive Western hybridization signal.ELISA results indicated that 97.1%(66/68) paratyphoid patients infected with Salmonella paratyphi A were positive for rPagC antibody in their serum specimens.When mice were immunized with 100 μg or 200 μg rPagC,the immunoprotective rates were 73.3%(11/15) or 86.7%(13/15),respectively.The sera from rPagC-immunized mice offered 1∶10-1∶40 agglutination titers with the H antigens of Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella typhi.
Conclusion: PagC gene has an extensive distribution in Salmonella paratyphi A isolates.rPagC can be used as the candidate antigen in genetic engineering vaccine due to its fine immunogenicity and powerful immunoprotective effect.
Vasodilating effect of capsaicin on rat mesenteric artery and its mechanism
CHEN Qiang, ZHU Huan-Huan, ZHANG Yuan-Yuan, ZHANG Yuan, WANG Li-Hong, ZHENG Liang-Rong
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 177-183.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.008
Abstract( 353 )   HTML (   PDF(1248KB)( 264 )

Objective: To investigate the vasodilating effect of capsaicin(CAP) on rat mesenteric artery and its mechanism.
Methods: The third branch of the superior mesenteric artery in male Sprague-Dawley rat(250-350 g) was excised,the periadventitial fat and connective tissue were removed and the mesenteric artery was dissected into 2 mm rings.Each ring was placed in a 5 ml organ bath of DMT 610M system and the tension was recorded.
Results: CAP(10-9-10-5 mol/L) relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded mesenteric artery pre-constricted by phenylephrine(10-5 mol/L),and the vasodilation in endothelium-intact mesenteric artery was stronger than that in endothelium-denuded one.Pretreatment with either L-NAME(3×10-4 mol/L),an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase(NOS), or CGRP8-37(2×10-6 mol/L),an antagonist of calcitonin gene-related peptide(CGRP),for 30 min significantly attenuated the relaxation of endothelium-intact mesenteric artery induced by CAP.CGRP(10-10-3×10-8 mol/L) relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded mesenteric artery pre-constricted by phenylephrine,and the vasodilation in endothelium-intact mesenteric artery was stronger than that in endothelium-denuded one.Substance P did not relax the mesenteric artery pre-constricted by phenylephrine.
Conclusions: CAP has partial endothelium-dependent relaxation effect on rat mesenteric artery,which may be mediated by activating the endothelial NOS-NO pathway.The endothelium-independent relaxation in rat mesenteric artery induced by CAP may be mediated by CGRP.

Role of phospholipase C in cytoskeleton rearrangements of dendritic cells invaded by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
XU Shui-Ling, XU Yan, HUANG Jia, FAN Hong-Yan, JIN Meng-Mei
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 184-191.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.009
Abstract( 548 )   HTML (   PDF(1679KB)( 256 )

Objective: To investigate the role of phospholipase C(PLC)in cytoskeleton rearrangement of mouse dendritic cells invaded by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Methods: Mouse dendritic DC2.4 cells were co-cultured with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.F-actin of DC2.4 cells were strained with palloidin-TRITC,the microtubule was stained with anti-β-tubulin monoclonal antibody and FITC-conjugated affnipure anti-mouse IgG.The changes of cytoskeleton in DC2.4 cells induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were determined by fluorescence microscopy and the rates of F-actin rearrangements were calculated.The expressions of PLC in cytoplasm and cytomemberane of DC2.4 cells were measured by ELISA.DC2.4 cells were pretreated with PLC inhibitor U73122,then F-actin rearrangements induced by invasion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were observed.
Results: Bacterial invasion was observed while DC2.4 cells were co-incubated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv for 2 h.The rates of invasion were(26.1±4.5)%,(39.9±5.6)%,(51.2±5.9)%,(57.9±6.1)% and(63.9±6.8)% at 4,6,8,10 and 12 h of co-culture,respectively; while those were(13.6±3.1)%,(14.2±3.9)%,(15.1±4.3)%,(16.8±4.0)% and(18.3±5.2)% after blocked by PLC,respectively.The rates of the F-actin rearrangements at 2,4,6,8,10 and 12 h after DC2.4 cells were invaded by H37Rv were(26.9±1.5)%,(59.3±2.8)%,(72.7±4.8)%,(78.2±5.9)%,(63.3±2.9)% and (43.2±2.6)%,respectively; while those were(18.5±1.2)%,(22.3±1.7)%,(23.6±2.5)%,(24.8±2.3)%,(22.3±1.3)% and (23.8±1.8)% after blocked by PLC,respectively.There were no changes of the microtubule observed in DC2.4 cells at the same time points.The rates of the F-actin rearrangements before blocked by PLC were higher than those after PLC blockade at 4,6,8 and 10 h(P<0.05).The expressions of PLC in cytomembrane in DC2.4 cells increased after 2 h and reached its highest level at 8 h.The PLC inhibitor U73122 inhibited the expressions of PCL in cytomembrane of DC2.4 cells,but not in cytoplasm.
Conclusions: Mycobacterium tuberculosis can provoke to F-actin rearrangements through PLC molecule,which would further lead to Mycobacterium tuberculosis invasion of DC2.4 cells.

Comparison of skin sympathetic reaction in patients with generalized anxiety disorder and with major depression disorder
JIANG Hong, WANG Ling, WANG Xin-Ling, FENG Rui, ZHANG Ying-Chun, TU Ling-Ling, CHEN Wei
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 192-196.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.010
Abstract( 423 )   HTML (   PDF(885KB)( 278 )

Objective: To compare skin sympathetic response(SSR) between patients with generalized anxiety disorder(GAD) and patients with major depression disorder(MDD).
Methods: The latency and amplitude of SSR wave were measured in 30 GAD patients and 30 MDD patients,before and after 8-week treatment of anti-anxiety or anti-depression drugs.Thirty age and sex-matched healthy subjects served as healthy controls(HC).
Results: Before the treatment,the latency of SSR in GAD patients was significantly shorter than that in HC group,while the amplitude was significantly higher than that in the HC(P<0.05).In MDD group,the latency before the treatment was significantly longer than that in the HC,while the amplitude was significantly lower than that in the HC(P<0.05).After treatment,the latency of SSR in GAD group was extended compared to the baseline level,and close to the level of the HC.The amplitude of SSR in GAD group became lower after treatment,but still higher than that of control group.The latency of SSR in MDD patients was significantly shorter after treatment compared to baseline level(P<0.05).In addition,the latency of SSR in MDD group was still longer than that in GAD group(P<0.05); meanwhile,the amplitude of SSR in MDD group was significantly lower that in GAD group(P<0.001).SSR parameters were positively correlated with HAMA and HAMD scores with a correlation coefficient of 0.57 and 0.73,respectively.
Conclusion: There are significant differences in SSR parameters between patients with GAD and patients with MDD,indicating that SSR can be used as an objective index to distinguish anxiety from depression.

Effects of ginsenosides Rb1 on learning and memory and expression of somatostatin in sleep deprivation rats
DONG Jing-Yin, WANG Jun-Bo, FANG Jie, YUAN Zhang-Gen, LU Ke-Jie, JIN Yi, ZENG Ling-Hui
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 197-204.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.011
Abstract( 333 )   HTML (   PDF(3288KB)( 238 )

Objective: To determine the effects of ginsenosides Rb1(GSRb1) on learning and memory and expression of somatostatin (SS) in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex in rat model of sleep deprivation (SD).
Methods: Rats were randomized into groups of SD 2 d,SD 4 d,SD 6 d,and SD 0 d,while each group was sub-divided into GSRb1 group and normal saline (NS) sub-groups.Rats were intraperitoneal administered with 30 mg/(kg·d) of GSRb1 or NS for 7 d,then the learning and memory abilities were examined by measuring average swimming speed and mean escape latency using Morris maze.Expression of somatostatin was detected with immunohistochemical method and image analysis in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex.
Results: Compared with SD 0 d rats,SD rats exhibited significant decrease in the average swimming speed and increase in the escape latency (P<0.01).The expression of somatostatin in the hippocampus was decreased significantly in SD 2 d,SD 4 d and SD 6 d rats (P<0.05).However,decrease was only observed in SD 4 d and SD 6 d rats in the frontal cortex (P<0.05).Parallel comparison between NS control and GSRb1 treated rats demonstrated that rats treated with GSRb1 in each subgroup exhibited faster swimming speed and shorter escape latency (P<0.05).Meanwhile,the expression of somatostatin was increased in SD 2 d,SD 4 d and SD 6 d rats in the hippocampus and in SD 4 d and SD 6 d rats in the frontal cortex (P<0.05),respectively.
Conclusion: GSRb1 enhances the expression of somatostatin in sleep deprivation rats and subsequently may improve learning and memory abilities of rats.

Analysis of 1H-MRS in patients with depression after basal ganglia infarction
ZHOU Lei, LOU Min, ZHENG Shui-Hong, LI Jie
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 205-211.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.012
Abstract( 395 )   HTML (   PDF(869KB)( 245 )

Objective: To investigate the metabolic changes on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in patients with first left basal ganglia infarction and their relationship with depression.
Methods: Twenty-two patients with first left basal ganglia infarction and 10 matched healthy controls were recruited in the study.Patients and controls underwent 1H MRS scan and the spectrum of N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA),choline (Cho) and creatinine (Cr) was recorded at the first week (D7) and 1 month after onset (M1),respectively.National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS),Ability of daily life (ADL),Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) were evaluated at D7,M1 and M6 after onset.The patients were classified into two groups: post-stroke depression (PSD) and non-post-stroke depression (NPSD) according to the result of HAMD.The differences of 1H-MRS between these two groups were compared and their relationship with NIHSS and ADL was analyzed.
Results: Among 22 patients 10 were diagnosed as PSD and 12 were NPSD.Compared to controls,NAA/Cr was significantly lower and Cho/Cr was significantly higher (P<0.05)in left prefrontal white matter and left basal ganglia in patients with infarct.Patients with PSD showed a lower NAA/Cr and higher Cho/Cr than NPSD patients (P<0.05).At M1 after onset,NAA/Cr in the left prefrontal white matter was significantly correlated with NIHSS (r=-0.551,P =0.032),while Cho/Cr was correlated with ADL (r=0.682,P=0.005)in PSD patients.
Conclusion: Metabolic changes shown on 1H-MRS in patients with basal ganglia infarction may predict the occurrence of PSD.

Efficacy and safety of ibutilide for conversion of atrial fibrillation/flutter
YU Zhong, XIANG Mei-Xiang, MA Chang-Sheng, ZHANG Shu-Long, YANG Yan-Zong
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 212-216.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.013
Abstract( 344 )   HTML (   PDF(547KB)( 268 )

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of intravenous ibutilide for conversion of atrial fibrillation(AF) and flutter(AFL) to sinus rhythm.
Methods: Ninety-nine consecutive patients aged 18-75 y with AF/AFL were included.The duration of arrhythmia was <90 d(1 h-90 d) and ventricular rate was >60 beats/min.Patients were assigned randomly into two groups: 49 patients in ibutilide group received ibutilide 1 mg,then repeated if AF/AFL was not converted after 10 min; 50 patients in propafenone group received propafenone 70 mg,then repeated if AF/AFL persisted after 10 min.Two drugs were diluted by 50 ml of 5% glucose and injected intravenously within 10 min.
Results: Ventricular rates were decreased in both groups.AF/AFL were converted in 34 of 49 patients(69.4%) in ibutilide group and in 22 of 50 patients(44.0%) in propafenone group(P<0.05).The converting time of ibutilide was significantly shorter than that of propafenone\[(16.79±12.31)min vs (36.92±11.38)min,P<0.01\].The most serious adverse effect of ibutilide was non-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia(3/49,6.12%).Transient hypotension and heart pause were the main adverse events in patients who received propafenone,acute left heart failure occurred in one patient of propafenone group.
Conclusions: Intravenous ibutilide is a safe and effective agent for cardioversion of recent-onset AF/AFL.Furthermore,strict processing under electrocardio-monitoring is important.

p53-independent signaling pathway in DNA damage-induced cell apoptosis
ZHANG Xiao-Yun, JIANG Ying, YANG Jun
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 217-223.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.014
Abstract( 719 )   HTML (   PDF(1061KB)( 411 )

p53 is considered as the “master regulator” in DNA damage-induced cell apoptosis.However,p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers (more than 50%).Thus the research of p53-independent pathway in cell apoptosis may ultimately provide new therapeutic opportunities for many cancers.It has been shown that Caspase 2,p73,p63,and NF-κB-related signaling pathways are involved in DNA damage-induced,p53-independent cell apoptosis.This article reviews the recent research progress in these signaling pathways.

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone in regulation of reproduction and behavior in mammalians
MENG Fan-Sen, CHEN Xue-Qun, DU Ji-Zeng
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 224-231.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.015
Abstract( 322 )   HTML (   PDF(706KB)( 260 )

RF-amide related peptide(RFRP) is the orthologue of gonadtropin-inhibitory hormone(GnIH) in mammals.The bodies of RFRP cell are located in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus(DMH) and the fibers project to preoptic area(POA) and median eminence of the hypothalamus.Its receptor mainly distributes in hypothalamus.RFRP fibers project to GnRH cells to regulate mammalian reproduction axis.This paper reviews the progress of current researches on RFRP in regulation of animal behaviors,including reproduction,food intake,anxiety and stress response.

Research progress on postoperative analgesia for pectus excavatum in pediatric patients after Nuss procedure
ZHOU Chen, JIN Hai-Yan, LI Jian-Hua, HU Zhi-Yong
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 232-236.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.016
Abstract( 279 )   HTML (   PDF(535KB)( 264 )

Pectus excavatum is the common congenital chest wall deformity in children,and Nuss procedure is the conventional surgical treatment for this disease.Nuss procedure is superior to Ravitch correction for it is less harmful in terms of the surgical technique.However,Nuss procedure is associated with severe postoperative pain,thus adequate postoperative analgesia is important.In this review,factors that influence the postoperative pain after Nuss procedure,the pain managements,the related complications and the side effects of drugs are discussed.

Impact of hepatitis B virus on sperm parameters and outcome of assisted reproductive technology
LI Miao, ZHU Yi-Min
Journal of ZheJiang University(Medical Science), 2013, 42(2): 237-241.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2013.02.017
Abstract( 392 )   HTML (   PDF(629KB)( 272 )

With the development of assisted reproductive technology(ART),more and more hepatitis B virus(HBV)-infected couples have their own children successfully; however,vertical transmission of HBV in ART,especially father-to-child transmission,cannot be avoided.The mechanism of attachment and penetration of HBV into human sperm is still not known.Therefore,understanding the state and mechanism of HBV infection of sperm and the impact of HBV on sperm parameters,following up the ART outcome in man with HBV infection are helpful to solve the fertility problem and to control father-to-child vertical HBV infection.

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