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Impact of public health emergency on public psychology: analysis of mental health assistance hotlines during COVID-19 in Zhejiang province
WANG Weidan,XU Fangzhong,XU Songquan,ZHANG Jianmin,ZHANG Ning
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 409-418.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.05
Abstract( 624 )   HTML( 30 )     PDF(1275KB)( 251 )

Objective: To analyze the usage of mental health assistance hotline during COVID-19 in Zhejiang province from January 25th to February 29th 2020, and summarize the characteristics of the demand for mental health services and the dynamic changes of public mental health status during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The calls related to pandemic were divided into four categories: medical, psychological, information and the others. The secondary categories of psychological calls were determined by text analysis. The number of calls were calculated weekly and the number of various types of calls over time were analyzed. We used stratified random sampling method to extract 600 cases of all kinds of calls related to pandemic and conducted a semantic analysis, through marking new, similar combination to form a feature set, then summed up the call content characteristics of each stage. Two hundred callers were followed up to understand how they felt about the call process in four aspects: the waiting time, call duration, the degree of problem-solving and the way to end the call. Results: In a total of 13 746 calls, 8978 were related to pandemic, among which 12.59%(1130/8978) were about medical issues, 26.50%(2379/8978) were about mental health, 27.18%(2440/8978) were about information regarding the pandemic and 33.74%(3029/8978) were about other pandemic related issues. Pandemic situation, relevant policy release, frequency of advertising campaigns were predictors of the number of calls per day during the pandemic (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The number of calls differed by gender and identities of callers (both P < 0.05). Finally 181 callers accepted telephone follow-up. Among them, 51.38%(93/181) of the callers thought that the waiting time was too long, 33.15%(60/181) of the callers thought that the call time was insufficient, 80.66%(146/181) of callers believed that the hotline could partially or completely resolve their concerns, and 39.23%(71/181) of the callers said the operator proposed to end the call. Conclusions: The changes of the number and content of the mental health assistance hotline calls reflected that the public mental health status experienced four stages during the pandemic: confusion, panic, boredom, and adjustment. The specialized mental health assistance hotlines should be further strengthened, and the efficiency should be improved. Mental health interventions should be tailored and adopted according to the characteristics of the public mental health status at different stages of the pandemic.

Advances in treatment of narcolepsy
XU Qinglin,LOU Guodong,WANG Tiantian,ZHANG Lisan
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 419-424.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.17
Abstract( 710 )   HTML( 19 )     PDF(1066KB)( 480 )

Narcolepsy is the most common cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) following obstructive sleep apnea. Its treatment aims to reduce EDS and cataplexy, improve nighttime sleep disturbance, sleep paralysis and sleep-related hallucinations. Pitolisant (a histamine H3 receptor antagonist) and solriamfetol (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) have recently been approved effective for narcolepsy in the United States and the European Union. Pitolisant has proved to be effective for both EDS and cataplexy. Besides being effective on EDS, solriamfetol seems to have advantages in abuse potential and withdrawal syndrome. As potential treatments for EDS and cataplexy associated with narcolepsy, several new drugs are being developed and tested. These new drugs include new hydroxybutyrate preparations (controlled release sodium hydroxybutyrate FT218, low sodium hydroxybutyrate JZP-258), selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (AXS-12), and modafinil combined with astroglial junction protein inhibitor (THN102). This paper reviews the recently approved drugs and potential treatments for narcolepsy.

Advances in sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy
XU Jiahui,JIN Bo,ZHANG Lisan,WANG Shuang
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 425-430.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.04
Abstract( 631 )   HTML( 7 )     PDF(1067KB)( 244 )

Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE), formerly known as nocturnal frontal epilepsy, is characterized by asymmetrical tonic or complex hypermotor seizures during sleep, with transient, frequent and clustering attack. The accurate incidence is not known but somehow low, which is estimated about 1.8/100 000. The differential diagnosis between SHE and parasomnias may be challenging due to possible similarities between the two sleep-related manifestations. In a majority of patients, the etiology is unknown. Identified etiologies are heterogeneous and structural abnormalities, which are involved in the severity and prognosis of SHE. In terms of treatment, it mainly includes pharmacological therapy and surgery. Carbamazepine seems to be the drug of choice in SHE patients, and epilepsy surgery provides excellent results in selected drug-resistant SHE cases. This review will focus on diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment and prognosis of SHE, aiming to promote its early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Relationship between sleep quality and bone mineral density in urban residents
XIONG Mingjie,LIU Xiang,YOU Li,CHEN Xiaolin
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 431-438.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.01
Abstract( 399 )   HTML( 11 )     PDF(1095KB)( 367 )

Objective: To investigate the relationship between sleep quality and bone mineral density (BMD) in urban residents. Methods: Data of 28 756 Han adults (14 355 males and 14 401 females), who completed both Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) assessment and radial BMD tests by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in the Health Management Center of Southwest China University from June 2012 to June 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The degree of sleep disorder was determined based on PSQI scores, while osteopenia and osteoporosis was diagnosed according to BMD T-value. The χ2 test and multiple regression model were used to investigate the relationship between sleep quality and BMD. Results: The numbers of normal BMD, osteoponia and osteoporosis were 17 039 (59.3%), 7916(27.5%) and 3801(13.2%), respectively. The mean PSQI score was 5.6±1.4 points. According to PSQI scores, there were 15 936 subjects without sleep disorder (55.4%), 5965 with mild (20.7%), 4897 with moderate (17.0%) and 1958 with severe sleep disorder (6.8%), respectively. There was no significant difference in osteoponia/osteoporosis rate between subjects with mild sleep disorder and normal ones (χ2=0.948, P>0.05), while the rate of osteoporosis in moderate sleep disorder group was higher than that in mild group (χ2=525.583, P < 0.01), and the rate of osteoponia/osteoporosis in severe sleep disorder group was much higher than that in moderate group (χ2=1124.877, P < 0.01). Multiple regression results showed that female, elders, mental labor, smoking and higher PSQI scores were independently associated with lower T-value (all P < 0.05), while moderate to intense daily physical activity was associated with higher T-value (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Sleep disturbances may be a major risk factor for BMD loss in urban residents, indicating that it would be a potential target of osteoporosis prevention.

Correlation between transient receptor potential canonical channel with heart and kidney injure of rat model of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome
WEN Wen,YAO Qiaoling,CHEN Yulan,LI Zhiqiang,SUN Xiaojing,LI Yu,ZHANG Junshi,SIMAYIZhulipiya ,XU Xinjuan
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 439-446.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.04.16
Abstract( 407 )   HTML( 14 )     PDF(1500KB)( 248 )

Objective: To investigate the expression of transient receptor potential canonical channels (TRPCs) in the heart and kidney of rat model of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods: Eighteen male SD rats were randomly assigned to intermittent hypoxia (IH) group (n=9) and control group (n=9). In IH group, rats were placed in a chamber and exposed to intermittent hypoxia for 8h (10AM-6PM) daily. The expression of TRPC-related mRNA and protein in the heart and kidney tissue were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results: The mRNA expressions of TRPC3/TRPC4/TRPC5 in heart tissues of IH group were increased significantly compared with the control group (all P>0.05); while there were no significant differences in the mRNA expressions of TRPC1/TRPC3/TRPC4/TRPC5/TRPC6/TRPC7 in kidney tissue between two groups (all P < 0.05). The mRNA expressions of TRPC4, TRPC5 and TRPC6 in kidney tissues of IH group were lower than that in heart tissues (all P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of TRPC7 in kidney tissues of control group was significantly higher than that in heart tissues (P < 0.05). The expression of TRPC5 protein in heart tissues of IH group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05); while there was no significant differences in the expression of TRPC5/TRPC6/TRPC7 protein in kidney tissue between two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion: The IH rat model shows that TRPC5 channel is likely to be involved in the OSAHS induced pathophysiological changes in the myocardium and may become a target to prevent OSAHS related cardiac damage.

Abnormal eye movements in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder
YANG Yi,LI Fei,PAN Yu,XIE Fei,CHEN Jie,SUN Yi,HU Xingyue,ZHANG Lisan
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 447-454.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.14
Abstract( 441 )   HTML( 3 )     PDF(1094KB)( 159 )

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of eye movements in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Methods: Twenty two patients with iRBD and 20 controls were enrolled between January 2017 and May 2019 from Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. Clinical data including polysomnogram (PSG) results were collected. Videonystagmography (VNG) including spontaneous nystagmus, gaze, saccade, tracking and optokinetic test were performed. The difference of VNG results between iRBD patients and controls were analyzed. The factors related to the abnormal VNG results were analyzed by using logistic regression analysis. Results: No significant differences were found between the iRBD and control groups in the spontaneous nystagmus, gaze nystagmus, square wave jerk, involuntary eye movement, saccade and optokinetic nystagmus (all P>0.05). In smooth pursuit of 0.4-0.5 Hz and 0.6-0.7 Hz, iRBD patients had more type Ⅲ-Ⅳ curve than controls (χ2=5.177 and 5.301, both P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that less sleep time of N3 stage was related to the abnormal results in smooth pursuit of 0.4-0.5 Hz (OR=0.963, P < 0.05). iRBD patients with Ⅲ-Ⅳ type curve in smooth pursuit of 0.4-0.5 Hz had less N3 sleep time than iRBD patients with Ⅰ-Ⅱ type curve (52±28 min vs. 76±23 min, t=2.197, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal smooth pursuit was found in iRBD patients, which might be related to the pathological mechanism of iRBD.

Relationship between sleep architecture and severity of obstructive sleep apnea
WU Biwen,CAI Jiaye,YAO Ying,PAN Yu,PAN Liuqing,ZHANG Lisan,SUN Yi
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 455-461.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.02
Abstract( 538 )   HTML( 10 )     PDF(1081KB)( 207 )

Objective: To investigate the effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on different sleep stages, and the relationship between N3 stage of non-rapid eye movement sleep and respiratory abnormal events. Methods: A total of 188 adult patients who underwent overnight polysomnography(PSG)monitoring in Sir Run Run shaw Hospital of Zhejiang University from June 24th to December 26th 2019 were enrolled in the study. OSA patients were classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate and severe) according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). PSG data, AHI and the lowest SPO2 in each stage of sleep were compared among three groups. Results: There was no significant difference in total sleep time and sleep efficiency among patients with different severity of OSA (all P>0.05). The proportion of N3 stage in moderate and severe OSA groups were significantly smaller than that in mild OSA group (all P < 0.05). The proportion of N3 stage in severe OSA group was also smaller than that in moderate OSA group (P < 0.05). In addition, severe OSA group had a longer latency of N3 stage than mild and moderate OSA groups (all P < 0.05). The latency of N3 stage in moderate OSA group was longer than that in mild OSA group (P < 0.05). The AHI in N3 stage was markedly lower than that in other sleep stages (all P < 0.01), regardless of the severity of OSA. Supine AHI in N3 stage in mild and moderate groups was significantly lower than that in N1, N2 and rapid eye movement (REM) stages (all P < 0.01). Supine AHI in N3 stage in severe group was also lower than that in N2 and REM stages (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The lowest SPO2 in N3 stage was significantly higher than that in N1, N2 and REM stages (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), regardless of the severity of OSA. Conclusions: The proportion of N3 stage is lower in OSA patients, and N3 stage has less sleep respiratory events than non-N3 stages. The results suggest that the increased N3 stage proportion may indicate less severity of OSA.

Correlation between suicidal ideation and polysomnography parameters in late-life depression patients
CAI Liqiang,YOU Yafeng,WEI Lili,QIN Yanhua,YAO Jiashu,SUN Yi,ZHANG Lisan,CHEN Wei
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 462-467.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.16
Abstract( 383 )   HTML( 8 )     PDF(1062KB)( 184 )

Objective: To investigate the relationship between sleep parameters and suicidal ideation in patients with late-life depression (LLD). Methods: Seventy-seven LLD patients over 60 years old from Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital of Zhejiang University during July 2017 and July 2018 were included in the study. All patients were assessed with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and polysomnography (PSG) overnight. The suicidal score of item 3 in HAMD (HAM-D3)was used to define whether there was a suicidal ideation. Participants were subsequently grouped according to endorsement of presence (HAM-D3 score ≥1, n=46) versus absence (HAM-D3 score=0, n=31) of suicidal ideation symptoms. The sleep efficiency, total sleep time, wakefulness after sleep onset, rapid eye movement percent/latency, and non-rapid eye movement sleep stages 1-3 (N1-N3) were assessed. ANOVA analyses were conducted to explore the correlation of sleep parameters with suicidal ideation between the groups with and without suicidal ideation. In model 1, the HAM-D3 constituted the independent variable in separate ANOVA tests; in model 2 the impact of depressive symptoms were assessed as a covariate with sleep parameters. Results: There was less stage N3 [(55±41)min, t=-4.731, P < 0.05] and the reduced percentage of N3 [(15±11)%, t=-4.194, P < 0.05] in LLD patients with suicidal ideation, compared with the LLD patients without suicidal ideation [(104±49) min, (26±11)%]. Correlation analyses revealed that there was a significant correlation between the suicidal ideation and the percentage of stage N3 and sleep time of stage N3 (both P < 0.05). Conclusion: Suicidal ideation is associated with less N3 sleep in LLD patients.

Early differential diagnosis between COVID-19 and mycoplasma pneumonia with chest CT scan
HUO Xianluo,XUE Xiaohua,YUAN Shuhui,ZHANG Dianchun,GAO Qing'e,GONG Tao
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 468-473.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.07.04
Abstract( 598 )   HTML( 2 )     PDF(7671KB)( 244 )

Objective: To early differentiate between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and adult mycoplasma pneumonia with chest CT scan. Methods: Twenty-six patients with COVID-19 and 21 patients with adult mycoplasma pneumonia confirmed with RT-PCR test were enrolled from Zibo First Hospital and Lanshan People's Hospital during December 1st 2019 and March 14th 2020. The early chest CT manifestations were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: The interstitial changes with ground glass density shadow (GGO) were similar in two groups during first chest CT examination (P>0.05). There were more lung lobes involved on the first chest CT in COVID-19 patients, which were mostly distributed in the dorsal outer zone (23/26, 88.5%), and nearly half of them (12/26, 46.2%) were accompanied by crazy-paving sign; while the lesions in adult mycoplasma pneumonia patients were mostly distributed along the bronchi, and the bronchial wall was thickened (19/21, 90.5%), accompanied with tree buds / fog signs (19/21, 90.5%). The above CT signs were significantly different between the two kinds of pneumonia (all P < 0.01). COVID-19 had a longer course compared with mycoplasma pneumonia, the disease peaks of COVID-19 patients was on day (10.5±3.8), while the disease on CT was almost absorbed on day (7.9±2.2) in adult mycoplasma pneumonia. The length of hospital stay in COVID-19 patients was significantly longer than that of mycoplasma pneumonia patients [(19.5±4.3) d vs (7.9±2.2) d, P < 0.01]. Conclusion: The lesions of adult mycoplasma pneumonia are mostly distributed along the bronchi with tree buds/fog signs, while the lesions of COVID-19 are mainly distributed in the dorsal outer zone accompanied by crazy-paving sign, which can early distinguish two diseases.

Psychological and behavior status of minor children of medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei province
GUO Li,BAI Shiqian,FAN Jingyi
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 474-479.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.06
Abstract( 429 )   HTML( 7 )     PDF(1061KB)( 245 )

Objective: To investigate the psychological and behavior status of minor children of medical staff in Hubei province during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted through WeChat from March 13 to 15, 2020, which included a general data questionnaire and Conners parental assessment questionnaire (PSQ). The questionnaires received from outside of Hubei province were excluded through IP address, and the questionnaires with answer time < 150 s were also excluded. The influence of parental work status on the psychological behavior was analyzed in children of different age groups. Results: A total of 391 valid questionnaires were collected, there were 207 males (52.9%) and 184 females (47.1%); 91 (23.3%) aged 3 to 6, 183 (46.8%) aged 6 to 10, and 117 (29.9%) aged 10 to 16. Both parents were medical staff in 87 participants(22.3%), one parent was medical staff in 139(35.5%) participants, and no parents were medical staff in 165 (42.2%) participants. In 3- < 6 years group, there was no significant difference in the PSQ scores of the children in each factor level (all P>0.05) between children with parents as medical staff and those without. In 6- < 10 years group, children with both parents as medical staff had higher hyperactivity-impulse factor score, learning problem factor score and total score than those without parents as medical staff (all P < 0.05), while they had higher learning problem factor score than those with one parent as medical staff (P < 0.05); the anxiety score of children with one or both parents as medical staff was higher than that of those without parents as medical staff (all P < 0.05). In 10 to 16 years group, the behavior problems, learning problems, hyperactivity-impulse, more dynamic index and the total score in children with one parent as medical staff were lower than those with both parents as medical staff or without parents as medical staff (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); while there were no significant differences in psychosomatic problems, anxiety factor scores between children with one parent as medical staff and other two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: During COVID-19 epidemic period, the psychological and behavior status of minor children of Hubei medical staff with different ages shows differences with those without parents as medical staff, particularly in 6- < 10 years and 10 to 16 year groups. It is necessary to pay attention to the psychological and behavioral status of children of medical staff in these age groups.

Qualitative study on working experience of COVID-19 care nurses
WANG Jinying,HE Jiangjuan,ZHU Jianmei,QIU Jiangying,WANG Huafen,XU Hongzhen
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 480-486.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.07
Abstract( 641 )   HTML( 15 )     PDF(1077KB)( 474 )

Objective: To study the working experience of COVID-19 care nurses. Methods: Twenty two nurses taking care of COVID-19 patients were interviewed by means of descriptive phenomenology. All the data were transcribed and recorded, and then processed into WORD documents. The Colaizzi 7 footwork was used to classify, encode, establish nodes and extract themes based on Nvivo11.0 software. Results: Two main themes were extracted: one is the positive feelings of nurses, including the sense of professional mission and pride, the sense of achievement and happiness, the improvement of self-worth and ability, the powerful support system and the power of role models; the other is the negative experience of nurses, including the worry and anxiety at work, the lack of experience and trust, the difficulty of work, and the inconvenience of isolating life. Conclusions: While fully affirming the work value of nurses, it is necessary for the society, hospitals and patients to give extensive and continuous support, care and respect to nurses, so as to stimulate their working enthusiasm and sense of professional achievement. Hospital managers need to implement all kinds of security work, meet the safety needs of nurses, pay attention to the physical and mental health of nurses, strengthen the training of nursing talents for critical and severe diseases and infectious diseases, improve the allocation of human resources, and enhance the ability of material allocation and reserve for major health events, so as to make adequate preparations for coping with public health events in the future.

Progress on loss-of-function hypothesis of presenilin-1 mutations in Alzheimer diseases
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 487-499.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.03
Abstract( 556 )   HTML( 8 )     PDF(3053KB)( 326 )

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an aging-related neurodegenerative disease and is associated with the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in patient brains. AD can be classified into the familial type and sporadic type. Presenilin-1 (PS1) is the major risk gene for familial AD (fAD) because its mutations comprised over 80%of the total mutations causing fAD. PS1 is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme γ-secretase, which is responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to produce Aβ. Although novel fAD-causing mutations in PS1 are being reported increasingly, the molecular mechanisms underlying how these mutations induce fAD remain elusive. Since over 90%of the fAD-causing mutations in PS1 leads to a reduction of γ-secretase activity, the PS1 loss-of-function mutation hypothesis has been emerged, which suggests that the loss of PS1 functions may be the root cause of AD. Recently, increasing number of evidence supports this hypothesis. First, PS1 loss-of-function mutations increase the production of long-length Aβ by disturbing the cleavage sites of γ-secretase APP, thereby increasing the ratio of Aβ42/Aβ40; Second, PS1 loss-of-function mutations dysregulate endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in neurons; Third, PS1 loss-of-function mutations inhibit the autophagy activity of neurons, resulting in the abnormal accumulation of cleaved products from APP; Fourth, PS1 loss-of-function mutations alter the endocytosis and transcytosis processes in neurons, leading to neuratrophy; Fifth, PS1 loss-of-function mutations activate brain immune cells (astrocytes and microglia), which mount a strong neuroinflammation response; Last, PS1 loss-of-function mutations reduce the rates of glycolysis and the production of lactic acid, disrupting the balance of neuronal energy supply. In this article we summary the research progress on the PS1 loss-of-function hypothesis and pose several topics which would guide studies of this field in future.

Progress on axon regeneration in model organisms
JIANG Peiran,WANG Zhiping
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 500-507.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.15
Abstract( 658 )   HTML( 4 )     PDF(2155KB)( 376 )

Different from neurons in the peripheral nervous system, mature neurons in the mammalian central nervous system often fail to regenerate after injury. Recent studies have found that calcium transduction, injury signaling, mitochondrial transportation, cytoskeletal remodeling and protein synthesis play essential roles in axon regeneration. Firstly, axon injury increases the intracellular concentration of calcium, and initiates the injury signaling pathways including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) and dual leucine kinase (DLK), which are found to promote axon regeneration in multiple animal injury models. The second step for axonal regrowth is to rebuild growth cones. Overexpressing proteins that promote dynamics of microtubules and actin filaments is beneficial for the reassembly of cytoskeletons and initiation of new growth cones. Thirdly, mitochondria, the power factory for cells, also play important roles in growth cone formation and axonal extension. The last but not the least important step is the regulation of gene transcription and protein translation to sustain the regrowth of axons. This review summarizes important findings revealing the functions and mechanisms of these biological progresses.

Advances on GABAergic interneurons in autism spectrum disorders
LI Jie,XU Junyu,LUO Jianhong
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 508-513.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.10
Abstract( 560 )   HTML( 12 )     PDF(1062KB)( 262 )

More and more evidences support that the abnormality of GABAergic interneurons is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), epilepsy, schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders. In recent years, numerous drugs have been developed to regulate ion channels and receptors in GABAergic interneurons, including sodium channels and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The activators of Na+ channel can enhance the action potential of GABAergic interneurons by reducing the inactivation of Na+ channel. NMDA receptor, as a potential therapeutic target of ASD, can restore the NMDA function of GABAergic interneurons, which would be used to treat behavioral defects. In addition, there are many ion channels and receptors on GABAergic interneurons related to ASD. This article reviews GABAergic interneurons in the pathogenesis of ASD and the related interventions.

Proteolytic cleavage of neuroligins and functions of their cleavage products
YU Jie,XU Junyu
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 514-523.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.11
Abstract( 400 )   HTML( 3 )     PDF(3768KB)( 171 )

Neuroligin is a key protein that mediates synaptic development and maturation, and is closely related to neurodevelopmental diseases such as autism. In recent years, researchers have found that neuroligin can be hydrolyzed by various proteases at different stages of development, neuronal activities or pathological states of some neuropsychiatric diseases, thus affecting synaptic activity and participating in the occurrence and development of neurological diseases. The hydrolysates may have different physiological functions from the whole protein, and play different functions in neural activities, such as regulating synaptic plasticity, increasing synaptic strength and number, affecting amyloid-β polymerization, promoting glioma proliferation and growth, activating related signaling pathways, and so on. In this article, on the basis of elaborating the structure and function of neuroligin as a whole protein, the conditions and products of its hydrolysis are summarized and analyzed, and the functional consequences and physiological significance of its hydrolysis are discussed.

Mechanisms underlying remyelination with special focus on demyelination models of multiple sclerosis
ZHENG Shuangshuang,ZHAO Jingwei
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 524-530.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.12
Abstract( 477 )   HTML( 6 )     PDF(1071KB)( 442 )

Failure to remyelinate and rewrap the demyelinated axons has been revealed as the major hurdle for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), and the bottleneck is the inability of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) to differentiate into mature oligodendrocyte. Remyelination is a spontaneous regenerative process, which includes activation, migration and differentiation of OPC, and is believed to protect the axon and further halt neurodegeneration. In recent years, studies have identified many potential drug targets for efficiently promoting OPC differentiation in in vivo demyelination models, such as metformin, clemostine, and drug targets as myelin transcription factor 1-like protein (Myt1L), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor, connexin 43 (Cx43), G protein coupled receptor 17 (GPR17), κ opioid receptor (KOR), sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51), Δ14-sterol reductase (TM7SF2), emopamil-binding protein (EBP). This review summarizes the recent progress on the mechanisms underlying the activation, migration and differentiation of OPC in remyelination with special focus on studies using demyelination models of MS, which may provide insights of further exploring new therapeutic strategies for MS.

Construction of data remote monitoring and auditing system for clinical trials
SHEN Liang,HUANG Qian,ZHAI You,QIU Yunqing,ZHAO Qingwei,WU Lihua,ZHOU Min,LIU Jian
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(4): 531-536.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.07.01
Abstract( 593 )   HTML( 17 )     PDF(1296KB)( 219 )

Clinical trial management system is independently developed by our hospital, which basically realized the whole process management and data collection of clinical trials. Based on the platform, the functional architecture of data remote monitoring and auditing was established. By desensitizing and encrypting of data, the project and subject hologram were visualized to facilitate to review of data. The data remote monitoring and auditing cloud platform adopts the B/S architecture pattern. Users register to apply for an account through the cloud platform, and access to the account via HTTPS security protocol. The authorized users were able to view the relevant items online to ensure the secure data transmission and easy operating. The electronic management of data is the direction of future efforts. By compliance with laws and regulations, the remote monitoring/auditing can be realized, and the data security and personal privacy can be ensured with the application of information technology. In this paper, the feasibility of remote monitoring/auditing mode is explored, specific technical schemes and system functions are suggested, and the realization scenarios are conceived in case of major public health emergencies.

17 articles