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J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)  2017, Vol. 46 Issue (2): 218-224    DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2017.04.16
Progress on mechanisms for pathogensto evade NOD-like receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways
HE Yujie1,2(),PAN Jianping1,*()
1. School of Medicine, Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou 310015, China
2. Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China
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The innate immune system provides a first line of defense against invading pathogens, in which the pattern recognition receptors (PRR) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) and initiate the downstream signaling pathways to eliminate the encountered pathogens. There are two main classes of such signaling pathways: NOD-like receptor (NLR) signaling pathway and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. The microbial pathogens under selective pressure have evolved numerous mechanisms to avoid and/or manipulate the NLR and TLR signal transduction for survival and replication. To evade the NLR signaling pathway, pathogens interfere and/or inhibit inflammasome activation in innate immune cells by producing virulence factors or reducing PAMPs expression. The mechanisms for pathogens to evade TLR signaling pathway include: inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) cascade reaction, inhibition of NF-КB activation, and interference of down-stream signal transduction by producing Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-containing proteins which bind directly with TLRs or adaptor proteins in the signaling pathway.

Key wordsBacteria      Immunity, natural      Toll-like receptors/immunology      Membrane glycoproteins/immunology      Signal transduction      Receptors, pattern recognition      Receptors, cell surface      Review     
Received: 02 December 2016      Published: 07 August 2017
Corresponding Authors: PAN Jianping     E-mail:;
Cite this article:

HE Yujie,PAN Jianping. Progress on mechanisms for pathogensto evade NOD-like receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2017, 46(2): 218-224.

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关键词: 细菌,  免疫,天然,  Toll样受体/免疫学,  膜糖蛋白类/免疫学,  信号转导,  受体,模式识别,  受体,细胞表面,  综述 
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