﻿ 不同隧道施工方法引起地层损失率的统计分析
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 浙江大学学报(工学版)  2019, Vol. 53 Issue (1): 19-30  DOI:10.3785/j.issn.1008-973X.2019.01.003 0

### 引用本文 [复制中英文]

dx.doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-973X.2019.01.003
[复制中文]
WU Chang-sheng, ZHU Zhi-duo. Statistical analysis of ground loss ratio caused by different tunnel construction methods in China[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University(Engineering Science), 2019, 53(1): 19-30.
dx.doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-973X.2019.01.003
[复制英文]

### 作者简介

orcid.org/0000-0001-9225-569X.
E-mail：shengchangwu@126.com.

### 通信联系人

orcid.org/0000-0002-7140-4200.
E-mail：zhuzhiduo@seu.edu.cn
.

### 文章历史

Statistical analysis of ground loss ratio caused by different tunnel construction methods in China
WU Chang-sheng , ZHU Zhi-duo
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Urban Underground Engineering and Environmental Safety, Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
Abstract: Field data of ground settlement from 23 areas of China were collected. The data that fitted Peck formulas well were used to obtain ground loss ratio by back analysis. Then the distribution and influence factors of ground loss ratio were discussed. 1) The mean value of the ground loss ratio induced by earth pressure balance (EPB) shield, slurry balance shield and shallow tunnel construction was 0.96%, 0.48%, 1.20%, respectively. About 93.46% of the ground loss ratio induced by EPB was 0%−2.0%, 84.83% of the ground loss ratio induced by slurry balance shield was 0%−1.0% and 92.8% of the ground loss ratio induced by shallow tunnel construction was 0%−2.5%. The distribution of the ground loss ratio caused by slurry balance shield was more concentrated compared with the other two methods. 2) The ground loss ratio caused by EPB shield and shallow tunnel construction decreased as the soil conditions got better, while the ground loss ratio caused by slurry balance shield decreased with the decrease of permeability coefficient. 3) The ground loss ratio had no obvious connection with the ratio of tunnel depth to diameter. 4) The mean value of ground loss ratio induced by EPB under different grouting ratio decreased at first and then increased with the increase of grouting ratio.
Key words: tunnel construction method    field data    ground loss ratio    ratio of tunnel depth to diameter    grouting ratio

Peck[3]首次提出地层损失的概念，在不排水条件下，利用Peck公式反分析，可以得到地层损失率与最大沉降、地面沉降槽宽度系数以及开挖半径之间的关系. 此后，国内外学者进一步研究地层损失. Rowe等[4-5]提出间隙参数与地层损失率的表达式. Clough等[6-8]建立黏性土地层中地层损失率与稳定系数[9]的关系式. 在实际工程中，以上解 析方法都存在一定的适用条件，因此基于实际工程实测资料的统计分析更重要. Mair等[10-12]统计分析英国地区的大量实测资料，结果显示该地区地层损失率砂土为0.5%，软土为1%~2.5%；Fargnoli等[13] 分析得到无黏性土层的地层损失率为0.27%~ 0.82%. Zhang等[14]给出成都砂卵石的地层损失率均值为0.87%. 韩煊等[15-18]收集国内隧道施工过程 中的实测数据，研究不同施工方法隧道施工诱发的地面沉降规律，分析施工参数的分布规律及变化特征.

1 隧道施工引起的地层损失率 1.1 实测数据的收集与处理

Peck[3]提出不排水条件下的横向地面沉降估算公式：

 $S(x) = {S_{\max }}\exp\; \left[ - {{{x^2}}}/\big({{2{i^2}}}\big)\right] ,$ (1)
 ${S_{\max }} = \frac{{{V_{\rm s}}}}{{i\sqrt {2{\text π}} }} ,$ (2)
 ${V_{\rm l}} ={{{V_{\rm s}}}}/\left({{{\text π}{R^2}}}\right) .$ (3)

 ${V_{\rm{l}}} = \frac{{{S_{{\rm{max}}}}i\sqrt {2{\text π}} }}{{{\text π}{R^2}}} .$ (4)

 $\frac{{S\left( x \right)}}{{{S_{\max }}}} = \exp\; \left[ - {{{x^2}}}/\big({{2{i^2}}}\big)\right] .$ (5)

 $\ln \Big({{S\big( x \big)}}/{{{S_{\max }}}}\Big) = - {x^2}\Big/\left({{2{i^2}}}\right) .$ (6)

 ${{i}} = \sqrt {{{ - 1}}/\big({{2{{m}}}}\big)} .$ (7)

i代入式（4），可得地层损失率.

 图 1 地面横向沉降曲线 Fig. 1 Statistical distribution of ground loss ratio

 图 2 实测数据回归分析 Fig. 2 Statistical distribution of ground loss ratio

1.2 实测数据的统计结果

 图 3 地层损失率统计分布图 Fig. 3 Statistical distribution of ground loss ratio

 图 4 地层损失率累计发生概率 Fig. 4 Accumulative frequency curves of ground loss ratio

1.3 实测数据统计结果的讨论

2 地层损失率影响因素分析

2.1 地层条件与地层损失率的相关性

2.2 埋径比与地层损失率的相关性

 图 5 埋径比与地层损失率的关系 Fig. 5 Relationship between ratio of tunnel depth to diameter and ground loss ratio

2.3 注浆率与地层损失率的相关性

 图 6 注浆率与地层损失率的关系 Fig. 6 Relationship between grouting ratio and ground loss ratio
3 结　论

（1）土压平衡盾构、泥水平衡盾构、浅埋暗挖法施工引起的地层损失率平均值分别为0.96%、0.48%、1.20%，分布在0%~2.0%、0%~1.0%、0%~2.5%的概率分别为93.46%、84.83%、92.80%；地面沉降槽宽度系数的平均值分别为0.50、0.37、0.54，分布在0.13~0.97、0.13~0.74、0.21~0.95.

（2）土压平衡盾构大于泥水平衡盾构隧道施工引起的地层损失率，浅埋暗挖隧道施工引起的地层损失率比盾构法的大，分布范围更广，离散性更大.

（3）土压平衡盾构和浅埋暗挖引起的地层损失率基本上随着地层条件的变好而减小，泥水平衡盾构引起的地层损失率随着地层渗透系数的变小而减小.

（4）隧道埋径比与地层损失率的相关性较弱，但总体上，当H/D<3.0时，盾构法（土压、泥水）隧道施工引起的地层损失率对土体扰动更敏感，更多地受到施工水平的影响；在H/D>3.0之后，地层损失率随着隧道埋径比的增大而减小. 浅埋暗挖法引起的地层损失率更多受到开挖方式、支护措施和施工水平的影响.

（5）不同注浆率下的平均地层损失率随着注浆率的增大呈现先减小后增大的趋势，并非注浆率越大越能减小地层损失率.

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