Abstract：During the periods of Qianlong and Jiaqing, Qing Dynasty when communication and traffic was slow, so a worthy question to ask is how scholars obtain academic information. Previous research upon this issue is rare, let alone monographs on this subject. After exhaustive investigation, the author finds that there were basically five ways for scholars in Qing Dynasty to obtain academic information. First, by face-to-face communication. Face-to-face communication was the most direct and unique way when there was no telephone nor broadband service. A large amount of academic information was obtained by face-to-face discussion of related issues or even gossips. Second, by letters. Communicating by letters was a simple, economical and effective method to exchange information, and it could be more thorough and more concrete than face-to-face communication. Moreover, many valuable academic achievements were first published in the form of letters.. To a large extent, communication by letterexpanded the space of academic exchange, which was helpful in the formation of the knowledge community during Qian Jia period. Moreover, communication by letter was not limited by space, time or other factors, and merited the name of ″floating academic media″. It was the most convenient method among the five to obtain academic information. Third, by writing prefaces and postscripts. Compared with letters, prefaces and postscripts often had more insightful and systematic comments. In addition to evaluating a piece of work, prefaces and postscripts may include discussion of academic issues. Preface-writers were among the first readers of a book or an article after it was finished but before it was published, becoming the first recipient of academic information. The writer, or the preface-requester, also learned new academic information from the preface. Fourth, by purchasing and borrowing books. Most of the scholars in Qing Dynasty had many collections of books. They acquired academic information mainly from their own collections of books, and also by reading other people's books. The books were mainly purchased at bookstores, sometimes at temporary stalls, floating book-ships and so on. Communication in bookstores was frequent among scholars, and among scholars and shopkeepers. Fifth, by giving books as gifts to each other. While the handed-down books were mainly acquired from purchases, a large proportion of the newly published books of contemporaneous scholars were gifts. Famous scholars had more opportunities to receive books, so they could read the books of their peers at the earliest time. Books as gifts were not limited to block-printed editions, but also manuscripts, drafts and so on. Besides their own writings, other books might also be given as gifts. The number of scholars in Qing Dynasty was limited, and the scholars in the same field were often more or less associated. Moreover, there were not many academic works at that time. Therefore, the ways to acquire academic information as described above basically matched the situations of academic study, culture, economy, transportation in Qing Dynasty (especially in Qian Jia period).The greatest advantage of acquiring academic information in time is to avoid duplication and unilateralism in research, and to make full use of the existing results. The greatest advantage of acquiring academic information in time is avoiding duplication and unilateralism in research, and making them able to make full use of the existing results.
陈东辉. 清代学者学术信息获取方式初探——以乾嘉时期为中心[J]. 浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版), 2018, 4(6): 96-.
Chen Donghui. Exploration of the Ways to Obtain Academic Information by Scholars in Qing Dynasty. JOURNAL OF ZHEJIANG UNIVERSITY, 2018, 4(6): 96-.