The British novelist Graham Greene has contributed several political novels to the literary history of the 20 Century in an unique style that defines the duality of his aesthetics the creator of fast-pace thrillers and the writer of artistic seriousness and significance,a sound storyteller,while applying techniques from modernist literature,focusing on the great events of the 20 Century,but from a modern point of view of morality . The story accentuates the vast discrepancy between our romanticized conception of the secret agent and his dull reality .From reversing the well-known spy character James Bond,Greene's protagonist Castle accomplished his″parody″and″betrayal″to fake heroes like Bond .Greene also satirizes the″ignoble″foreign politics during the Cold War and the state power competition which is honored by collective selfishness .Like Daintry,a typical character of″habitual″survivors in modern society has been brought up .They are conditioned to their professional obligations given by the state or society ;therefore tend to make no independent thinking or decision .Greene warns,like Daintry,that these people could easily become antihuman″accomplice″in ideology discourses which may cause mass tragedy . The novel superficially measures Castle's confusion of loyalty to country or to human .It explores,however,deeply on the moral dilemma of modern society .Compared to Castle's fidelity problem,the type of heroes like Bond who always won on screen,shows a propaganda machine or a simplified substitute of political ideology .Ian Fleming has built a literary mirage to help people escape from the reality ; while Greene used real historic space and fictional literary imagination to establish a″global village″which involved each person .People are compelled to face the human flaws,and in meantime obtain the potential human factors which they themselves are not aware of . Greene criticized,on the one hand,the unreasonable and antihuman political logic in the espionage world,and expressed his sympathy with Castle who fought to remain human in the powerful system of nation .On the other hand,Castle's naive and absurdity on trying to isolate his personal life from political world was also satirized in the novel .In the end,Greene suggested a″virtue of disloyalty″to surpass the modern ethical dilemma .He encouraged people to bravely take a skeptical attitude to any absolute judgment or established principle,and in this case,to examine seriously daily life and personal morality . In addition,the point of view from the American critic Michael Sheldon is refuted in this essay .He defined that Greene created Castle to defend his friend Kim Philby who was Greene's supervisor in MI6 but turned out to be a double agent and fled to Moscow .Since Castle is presented both with sympathy and criticism in the novel and the espionage systems UK and SU are satirized,the viewpoint above can hardly explain itself .The friendship between Greene and Philby is set on a personal history rather than on sharing certain political ideologies .
潘一禾 房岑. 忠诚的困惑与背叛的美德----论格雷厄姆·格林的国际政治小说《人性的因素》[J]. 浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版), 2014, 44(4): 182-190.
Pan Yihe Fang Cen. Confusion of Loyalty and Virtue of Disloyalty :On Graham Greene's International Political Novel The Human Factor. JOURNAL OF ZHEJIANG UNIVERSITY, 2014, 44(4): 182-190.