Using the numerous data and statistics of the literature that were published during the Republic of China period,based on the modern European and American preschool education theory,this article briefly reviewed the history of the″teaching″function concept in early childhood education theory .It is known that from the late 19th century to the mid-20th century,the modern European and American preschool education thoughts gradually formed .Among all the theories,the exploration of the″teaching″function in early childhood marked the significant progress when it was compared to the traditional parenting philosophy in the Middle Ages,thus making it an important part of the early childhood education theory,as much as the role of the concept of″raising″(child care) is in the early childhood education theory . These cognitive concepts were gradually quoted by the scholars during the Republic of China . The scholars explained the concept of the″teaching″function in early childhood education from a macro perspective .Their understanding towards the targets and objectives of the″teaching″function in early childhood education developed in stages .In the 1920s,the theory of Child Study was introduced to China,and it played the supporting role for the quotations involving the concept of the″teaching″function in early childhood education in the aspect of child instinct,child care environment and child physical and mental development . Scholars also recognized the enhancement that the humanitarian and Liberalism,which were derived from the European Enlightenment,had brought to the modern European and American concept of the″teaching″ function in early childhood education . The enhancement was embodied as follows :children's personality development and autonomous status must be respected;the design of the early childhood education methodology and evaluation system must be child-centered . Scholars concerned more about the enhancement that the progress of psychological science in modern European and American had brought to the modern European and American concept of the ″teaching″function in early childhood education .They also quoted several mainstream schools that were crucial to enhance the modern European and American concept of the″teaching″ function in early childhood education . The birth of the Child-Centered concept brought new guidelines and methodologies to the practice of the″teaching″function in early childhood education .Child Realism provided the tool for studying the early childhood cognitive processes . Child Behavior believed that the study for early childhood psychology should focus on child behavior instead of child awareness .Child Independent theory held the opinion that the most important educational goal was to develop child independence,and then the accordingly designed approaches were examined .The scholars' quotations of the concept of the″teaching″function in modern European and American early childhood education reflected the demands of the Chinese preschool education theory during the Republic of China period in three major ways :firstly,the quotations reflected the preschool child care and educational demand that modern institutional transformation and the socio-economic and family pattern change brought to the society;secondly,they reflected the situation that there were no methodologies for child care practice during the Republic of China period;and finally,they reflected the need for guidance and directions of child care at that time .There were stages in the Chinese quotations of the cognitive concept of the″teaching″function in modern European and American early childhood education thoughts .The 1920s and 1930s were marked as the rapid development period .However,during the stages of war,″child care″function surpassed the″teaching″function and became the first priority,and then the quotes for the″teaching″function gradually decreased .
朱季康 ［美］孔祥德［美］薛烨. 民国时期对欧美近代幼教思想中"教"功能理念认知的引述[J]. 浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版), 2013, 43(6): 33-42.
Zhu Jikang1 Hsiang-te Kung2 Yeh Hsueh3. The Quotations of the Cognitive Concept of the″Teaching″Function in Modern European and American Early Childhood Education Thoughts in the Republic of China Period. , 2013, 43(6): 33-42.