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Consensus on diagnosis and treatment of ornithine trans-carbamylase deficiency
Division of Genetics and Metabolism, Child Diseases and Health Care Branch, Chinese Association for Maternal and Child Health
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 539-547.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.04.11
Abstract( 619 )   HTML( 32 )     PDF(1097KB)( 318 )

Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency(OTCD)is a most common ornithine cycle (urea cycle) disorder. It is a X-link inherited disorder caused by OTC gene mutation that in turn leads to reduction or loss of OTC enzyme activity. Its onset time is related to the lack of enzyme activity. Patients with neonatal onset usually have complete absence of OTC enzyme activity, which is mainly associated with male semi-zygotic mutations; and the disease progresses rapidly with high mortality rates. Patients with late onset vary in onset age and clinical manifestations, and the course of disease can be progressive or intermittent. The acute attack mainly manifests neuropsychiatric symptoms accompanied by digestive symptoms like liver function damage or even acute liver failure. Elevated blood ammonia is the main biochemical indicator of OTCD patients. Increased glutamine, decreased citrulline in blood, and increased orotic acid in urine are typical clinical manifestations for OTCD patients. Genetic testing of OTC gene is important for OTCD diagnosis. The goal of treatment is to minimize the neurological damage caused by hyperammonemia while ensuring the nutritional needs for patient development. For patients with poor response to medication and diet, liver transplantation is recommended under the condition of stable metabolic state and absence of severe neurological damage. During long-term treatment, physical growth indicators, nutrition status, liver function, blood ammonia and amino acids should be regularly monitored. This consensus aims to standardize the diagnosis and treatment of OTCD, improve the prognosis, reduce the mortality and disability of patients.

Artificial intelligence technology in cardiac auscultation screening for congenital heart disease: present and future
XU Weize,YU Kai,XU Jiajun,YE Jingjing,LI Haomin,SHU Qiang
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 548-555.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.10.01
Abstract( 467 )   HTML( 23 )     PDF(1329KB)( 239 )

The electronic stethoscope combined with artificial intelligence (AI) technology has realized the digital acquisition of heart sounds and intelligent identification of congenital heart disease, which provides objective basis for heart sound auscultation and improves the accuracy of congenital heart disease diagnosis. At the present stage, the AI based cardiac auscultation technique mainly focuses on the research of AI algorithms, and the researchers have designed and summarized a variety of effective algorithms based on the characteristics of cardiac audio data, among which the mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) is the most effective one, and widely used in the cardiac auscultation. However, the current cardiac sound analysis techniques are based on specific data sets, and have not been validated in clinic, so the performance of algorithms need to be further verified. The lack of heart sound data, especially the high-quality, standardized, publicly available heart sound database with disease labeling, further restricts the development of heart sound diagnostic analysis and its application in screening. Therefore, expert consensus is necessary in establishing an authoritative heart sound database and standardizing the heart sound auscultation screening process for congenital heart disease. This paper provides an overview of the research and application status of auscultation algorithm and hardware equipment based on AI in auscultation screening of congenital heart disease, and puts forward the problems to be solved in clinical application of AI auscultation screening technology.

Screening and clinical analysis of isovaleric acidemia newborn in Zhejiang province
HU Zhenzhen,YANG Jianbin,HU Lingwei,ZHAO Yunfei,ZHANG Chao,YANG Rulai,HUANG Xinwen
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 556-564.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.10.02
Abstract( 272 )   HTML( 8 )     PDF(1102KB)( 125 )

Objective: To investigate the incidence, clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics of isovaleric acidemia (IVA) in Zhejiang province. Methods: Between January 2009 and December 2019, a total of 3 510 004 newborns were screened for IVA using tandem mass spectrometry. Patients of IVA were confirmed by urine organic acid and IVD gene detection. IVA patients were given diet and life management, supplemented with L-carnitine and glycine treatment, long-term followed up to observe and evaluate the growth and intellectual development. Results: A total of 15 patients with IVA were diagnosed, with an incidence of 1/234 000. Three patients had acute neonatal IVA, and the rest were asymptomatic. The isovalerylcarnitine (C5) levels were increased in all patients. Twelve children underwent urinary organic acid analysis, of which 11 cases had elevated isovalerylglycine levels, 4 cases with 3-hydroxyisovalerate increased simultaneously. Eleven IVA patients underwent genetic testing, 9 patients were compound heterozygous variants in IVD gene, one with homozygous variants in IVD gene, and one harbored one IVD variant. Nineteen IVD variants (14 missense mutations, 3 intron mutations, 1 code shift mutation, and 1 synonymous mutation) were identified, 11 of which were not reported. Among the 15 IVA patients, one patient died and two patients were followed up locally. The remaining patients had no obvious clinical symptoms during the follow-up (2-79 months). Three patients presented with growth and development delay, the remaining had normal physical and mental development. Conclusions: The clinical manifestations of IVA are non-specific, and the gene spectrum is scattered. Newborn patients screened by tandem mass spectrometry can receive early diagnosis and treatment, so as to correct metabolic defects and pathophysiological changes.

Effects of delivery and storage conditions on concentrations of amino acids and carnitines in neonatal dried blood spots
HU Lingwei,HU Zhenzhen,YANG Jianbin,ZHANG Yu,SHI Yezhen,ZHU Shasha,YANG Rulai,HUANG Xinwen
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 565-573.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.10.03
Abstract( 189 )   HTML( 8 )     PDF(3247KB)( 106 )

Objective: To explore effects of different delivery and storage conditions on concentrations of amino acids and carnitines in neonatal dried blood spots (DBS), so as to provide evidence for improving accurate and reliable detection by tandem mass spectrometry. Methods: A total of 1 254 616 newborn DBS samples in Newborn Screening Center of Zhejiang Province were delivered and stored at room temperature (group A, n=338 467), delivered by cold-chain logistics system and stored at low temperature (group B, n=480 021), or delivered by cold-chain logistics system and stored at low temperature and low humidity (group C, n= 436 128), respectively. The concentrations of amino acids and carnitines in DBS were detected by tandem mass spectrometry. Data analysis was performed by SPSS 24.0 to explore the influence of temperature and humidity on the concentrations of amino acids and carnitines. Results: The concentrations of amino acids and carnitines in the three groups were skewed, and the differences in amino acid and carnitine concentrations among groups were statistically significant (all P < 0.01). The median concentration of tyrosine was lower in group A than those in group B and group C by 18%and 16%respectively, while there was no significant difference between the last two groups. The median concentrations of methionine were lower in group A and group B than that in group C by 15%and 11%, respectively. The median concentrations of arginine were lower in group A and group B than that in group C by 12%and 25%, respectively. The median concentration of free carnitine (C0) was higher in group A than that in group C by 12%, while there was no significant difference between group A and group B. The median concentrations of acetylcarnitine (C2), propionyl carnitine (C3), C3DC+C4OH, C5DC+C6OH and hexadecanoyl carnitine (C16) were lower in group A than those in group B and group C by 21%-64%. The concentrations of other amino acids and acylcarnitines differed little among three groups. The monthly median coefficients of variation of other amino acids and carnitines in group A were higher than those in group B and group C except for citrulline, C4DC+C5OH and isovalerylcarnitine (C5). Conclusion: Cold-chain logistics system and storage in low temperature and low humidity can effectively reduce degradation of some amino acids and carnitines in DBS, improve the accuracy and reliability of detection, and thus ensures the quality of screening for neonatal metabolic diseases.

Analysis of GFM1 gene mutations in a family with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1
SHEN Yaping,YAN Kai,DONG Minyue,YANG Rulai,HUANG Xinwen
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 574-580.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.10.04
Abstract( 400 )   HTML( 14 )     PDF(8178KB)( 638 )

Objective: To analyze the clinical phenotype and genetic characteristics of a family with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 (COXPD-1). Methods: The whole exome sequencing was performed in parents of the proband; and the genetic defects were verified by Sanger sequencing technology in the dried blood spot of the proband, the amniotic fluid sample of the little brother of proband, and the peripheral blood of the parents. Results: Whole exome sequencing and Sanger validation showed compound heterozygous mutations of GFM1 gene c.688G>A(p.G230S) and c.1576C>T (p.R526X) in both the proband and her little brother, and the c.1576C>T of GFM1 variant was first reported. The two patients were died in early infancy, and presented with metabolic acidosis, high lactic acid, abnormal liver function, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, development retardation and epilepsy. Conclusion: GFM1 gene c.688G>A and c.1576C>T compound heterozygous mutations are the cause of this family of COXPD-1.

Genetic analysis and clinical phenotype of a family with lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome
HU Gang,LIU Bei,CHEN Min,QIAN Yeqing,DONG Minyue
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 581-585.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.10.05
Abstract( 240 )   HTML( 4 )     PDF(5905KB)( 105 )

Objective: To identify the genetic causes of a family with lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LDS). Methods: The whole exome sequencing was performed in a aborted fetus as the proband, and a candidate gene was identified. Peripheral blood of 8 family members were collected. Genotypic-phenotypic analysis were carried out through PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. Results: The proband, and the mother, grandmother, uncle, granduncle of the proband all had distichiasis or varix of lower limb carried a FOXC2:c.595dupC frame shift mutation, and other subjects without any significant phenotypes did not present the mutation. Conclusion: The FOXC2:c.595dupC frame shift mutation is the genetic cause of this family, which can lead to autosomal dominantly LDS, presenting nuchal translucency thickening and hydrops fetal during pregnancy, and the prognosis is usually good.

Genetic analysis of a mosaic case with low proportion mutation of TSC2 gene
JIN Xiaoxiao,JIN Pengzhen,YAN Kai,QIAN Yeqing,DONG Minyue
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 586-590.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.10.06
Abstract( 398 )   HTML( 5 )     PDF(2440KB)( 99 )

Objective: To perform gene mutation analysis in a patient with atypical clinical manifestations of tuberous sclerosis (TSC) for definite diagnosis. Methods: Peripheral blood DNA was obtained from a patient with clinically suspected TSC and her parents, and all exons and their flanking sequences of TSC1 and TSC2 genes in the proband were sequenced by whole exome sequencing to determine the candidate pathogenic mutations. At the same time, Sanger sequencing was performed to verify the peripheral blood DNA of the patient and her parents. And the mosaic percentage of the mutation in the proband's somatic cells was detected by the droplet digital PCR method. Results: A heterozygous nonsense mutation c.1096G>T (p.E366*) was identified in the exon 11 of the TSC2 gene, which only had a small mutation peak. A lower percentage of the mutation was found in the DNA of the patient than that in the public database, therefore the possibility of mosaicism might not be excluded. In addition, the droplet digital PCR method demonstrated that the proband was a c.1096G>T mutant mosaicism, and the mosaic percentage was 14%. Conclusions: The somatic mosaic mutation c.1096G>T (p.e366*) may be responsible for the phenotype of TSC in this patient. And the drop digital PCR is expected to be a diagnostic method for somatic cells mosaicism.

Preoperative retrograde portography for children with cavernous transformation of the portal vein: clinical application in 8 cases
HUANG Zongwei,GAO Zhigang
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 591-596.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.10.07
Abstract( 165 )   HTML( 4 )     PDF(2397KB)( 58 )

Objective: To assess the clinical application of preoperative retrograde portal venography for children with cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV). Methods: The clinical data of 8 cases of CTPV admitted in the Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University from January 2018 to September 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative retrograde portography was performed to determine the corresponding vascular morphology and size of portal vein system. If the retrograde portography showed that the left branch of the shadow portal vein was unobstructed and its diameter was greater than 3 mm, Rex shunt would be performed after anatomic exploration of Rex recess; if retrograde portography showed that the diameter of left portal vein was less than 3 mm, but the diameter of left renal vein dissected during shunt operation was greater than 5 mm, Warren operation was selected. The patients were followed up for 1, 3 and 6 months after discharge, and then were followed up every 6 months. Results: Retrograde portal venography was successfully performed in 8 child patients.The anatomical position and size of main portal vein and its left and right branches, left renal vein and other important vessels were determined. Among them, there was the well-developed left and right branches of portal vein in 4 child patients, in which the left and right branches of portal vein converged together, but did not communicate with the main portal vein. In addition, the left branch diameter of the portal vein was greater than 3 mm, and the anatomical exploration results during shunt were consistent with it, so Rex shunt was performed. In the other 4 cases, the left branch diameter of the portal vein was small (less than 3 mm) in 3 cases, and the right branch was not clearly developed. Moreover, the left branch of the portal vein was poorly developed and almost occluded in 1 case. However, the left renal vein in these 4 child patients was well developed, the blood flow was unobstructed and the diameter was greater than 5 mm, so Warren operation was performed. Seven patients recovered well after the operation, and the other one had digestive tract rudimentary one year after operation, and the condition was stable after conservative treatment. Conclusion: The preoperative retrograde portal venography can be used to evaluate the portal vein system in children with CTPV, which provides important clinical basis for making appropriate treatment plan before surgery.

Morbidity of congenital heart disease in children with anorectal malformations and related treatment
LIU Yun,LI Kaikai,WU Juan,LI Hezhou,GENG Xiaoduan,GU Yachuan
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 597-602.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.10.08
Abstract( 166 )   HTML( 4 )     PDF(1076KB)( 68 )

Objective: To investigate the morbidity of congenital heart defects(CHDs) in children with anorectal malformation, and to summarize appropriate treatment. Methods: The clinical data and echocardiographic findings of 155 children with congenital anorectal malformations from the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University during January 2016 and October 2019 were reviewed. According to the surgical findings of anorectal malformations, the patients were categorized as the high/intermediate group and the low group; the CHDs were classified as minor CHDs and major CHDs. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation of wingspread classification, and extracardiac malformations with the severity of CHDs. Results: Out of 155 children with anorectal malformations, 47 (30.3%) had different types of cardiac structural malformations, including 18 cases of minor CHDs (11.6%) and 29 cases of major CHDs (18.7%). Sixty children (38.7%) had extracardiac malformations, of which 38 cases (24.5%) had a single extracardiac malformation, 15 cases (9.7%) had multiple extracardiac malformations, 6 had trisomy 21 syndrome, and 1 had VATER syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that wingspread classification of anorectal malformation and extracardiac disorders were independent risk factors for major CHDs. The probability of major CHDs in children with high/intermediate anorectal malformation was 4.709 times higher than that with low anorectal malformation (OR=4.709, 95% CI: 1.651-13.432, P < 0.01). The probability of major CHDs was 3.85 times higher for increasing each additional grade of extracardiac malformations(without, with single, or multiple malformations) (OR=3.850, 95% CI: 2.065-7.175, P < 0.01). According to the presence and severity of CHDs, children with anorectal malformations were classified into three categories: without CHDs, with minor CHDs and with major CHDs, for differential treatment and management. Anorectal malformations would be treated and managed in children without CHDs and with minor CHDs following the original plan; however, children with minor CHDs may require cardiac follow-up after surgery. In children with major CHDs, the personalization tactics were developed based on the principle of emergency first. There were increased perioperative infection rate (P < 0.05), longer hospital days (P < 0.01), reduced cure rate (P < 0.05) and increased mortality (P < 0.05) in children with major, compared with those without CHDs and minor CHDs. Conclusions: The morbidity of major CHDs is higher in severe cases with high/intermediate anorectal malformation and acute cases without fistula or with obstructed fistula and cases with multiple congenital disorders. Echocardiography can define the type and severity of CHDs, which are useful to develop the optimal diagnosis and treatment plan for children with anorectal malformation.

Reuse process of positive pressure powered air-filter protective hoods
MO Junjun,HUANG Fang,LYU Bei,SHEN Hongmei,WANG Qun,XU Xiaowei,CHAI Qinming
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 603-608.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.10.09
Abstract( 206 )   HTML( 3 )     PDF(1330KB)( 45 )

Objective: To establish reuse process of positive pressure powered air-filter protective hoods during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Methods: The procedure of pretreatment, storage, recovery, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization process of positive pressure powered air-filter protective hoods, which were used in the treatment of COVID-19 infection patients was established in Central Sterile Supply Department of the hospital. The cleaning and disinfection effects of the protective hoods after treatment were examined by magnifying glass method, residual protein detection method, real-time PCR, and agar pour plate method. Results: Twenty five used protective hoods underwent totally 135 times of washing, disinfecting and sterilizing procedures. After washing, all the protein residue tests and COVID-19 nucleic acid tests showed negative results. After sterilizing, all the protective hoods met sterility requirement. All the tested protective hoods were undamaged after reprocessing. Conclusion: The established reuse procedures for used positive pressure powered air-filter protective hoods are safe.

Comparison of three medical goggle sterilizing approaches
WANG Qun,MO Junjun,HUANG Fang,PU Ying,LYU Bei
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 609-613.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.10.10
Abstract( 672 )   HTML( 4 )     PDF(1051KB)( 43 )

Objective: To compare three sterilizing methods for reusable medical goggles. Method: A total of 180 medical goggles of the same brand and same model were randomly divided into three groups. In group A the goggles were first soaked with 2000 mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant and then cleaned manually; goggles in other two groups were sterilized using pre-programmed automatic spray cleaning and disinfection machine, the disinfection program was set to 90 ℃ for 5 min in group B and 70 ℃ for 30 min in group C. The quality of the sterilization was monitored by visual inspection with luminous magnifying glass and residual protein detection assay. User satisfaction on cleanliness of medical goggles, clarity of mirror surface and suitability of elastic bands was investigated with questionnaire survey. Results: The qualification rates verified by visual inspection were 82.4%, 84.6%and 98.3%in group A, B and C, respectively, the qualification rate in group C was significantly higher than those in group B and group C (all P < 0.05). The qualification rates verified by residual protein detection assay were 96.7%, 100.0%and 100.0%in group A, B and C, respectively (P>0.05). A total of 54 questionnaires were submitted for the survey. The satisfaction rates were 100.0%, 90.7%and 94.4% for cleanliness of medical goggles, clarity of mirror surface and suitability of elastic bands, respectively. Conclusion: Machinery sterilization set 70 ℃ for 30 min has better cleaning and sterilizing effects for reusable medical goggles.

Standardized sputum collection increases sputum sample collection rate for novel coronavirus nucleic acid detection
QIN Jianfen,PAN Hongying,ZHANG Rongrong,TANG Leiwen,MAO Xiawen
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 614-617.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.07.02
Abstract( 192 )   HTML( 6 )     PDF(1054KB)( 58 )

Objective: To evaluate the effect of standardized health education on the sputum specimen collection rate for nucleic acid detection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Two hundred and twenty-seven patients in fever clinics and isolation wards of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital of Zhejiang University and 307 migrant workers returning to 5 enterprises in Shanghai from February 3 to March 14, 2020 were enrolled in the study. Through clarifying the procedures of collecting sputum specimens, making graphic/video health education materials, standardizing the contents and methods of health education, we conducted education to the subjects. The subject expectorated spontaneously or with medical assistance. For patients, the number of sampling attempts and sputum acquisition times were documented before and after the implementation of the standardized expectoration method; for the returning migrant employees in the enterprises, only the number of collected samples after the implementation of the standardized expectoration method were recorded. Results: A total of 378 sputum samples were collected from 227 patients. The sputum sampling rates before and after the implementation of health education were 40.9%and 58.4%, respectively (P < 0.01). A total of 304 sputum samples were obtained from 307 enterprise returnees, with a sample collection rate of 99.0%. Conclusion: The education for standardized sputum sample collection method can effectively increase the sputum collection rate.

Perioperative infection prevention strategies for double-lung transplantation in elderly patients with COVID-19
MA Yifang,MENG Haiyan,WANG Ying,SUN Xinxing,CHEN Zhu
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 618-622.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.10.11
Abstract( 196 )   HTML( 2 )     PDF(1040KB)( 111 )

Objective: To summarize the experience of perioperative prevention during double-lung transplantation for elderly patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Clinical data of 2 elderly patients with COVID-19 who underwent double-lung transplantation in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine in March 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Perioperative protective measures were introduced in terms of medical staffing, respiratory tract, pressure injuries, air in operating room, instruments and equipment, pathological specimens, and information management. Results: Two cases of double-lung transplantation were successfully completed, and the patients had no operation-related complications. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenator was successfully removed 2 to 4 days after surgery and the patients recovered well. There was no infection among medical staff. Conclusion: Adequate preoperative preparation, complete patient transfer procedures, proper placement of instruments and equipment, strengthening of intraoperative care management, and attention to prevention of pressure injury complications can maximize the safety of COVID-19 patients and medical staff.

Research progress on macrophage in radiation induced lung injury
LI Mengyao,LIU Pan,KE Yuehai,ZHANG Xue
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 623-628.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.10.12
Abstract( 375 )   HTML( 25 )     PDF(1055KB)( 475 )

Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI), including acute radiation pneumonitis and chronic radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF), is a side effect of radiotherapy for lung cancer and esophageal cancer. Pulmonary macrophages, as a kind of natural immune cells maintaining lung homeostasis, play a key role in the whole pathological process of RILI. In the early stage of RILI, classically activated M1 macrophages secrete proinflammatory cytokines to induce inflammation and produce massive reactive oxygen species (ROS) through ROS-induced cascade to further impair lung tissue. In the later stage of RILI, alternatively activated M2 macrophages secrete profibrotic cytokines to promote the development of RIPF. The roles of macrophage in the pathogenesis of RILI and the related potential clinical applications are summarized in this review.

Effects of antihyperglycemics on endothelial progenitor cells
HAN Xue,JIANG Guojun,SHI Qiaojuan
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 629-636.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.10.13
Abstract( 197 )   HTML( 9 )     PDF(1090KB)( 103 )

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in diabetic vascular complications. A large number of studies have revealed that some clinical antihyperglycemics can improve the complications of diabetes by regulating the function of EPCs. Metformin can improve EPCs function in diabetic patients by regulating oxidative stress level or downstream signaling pathway of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase; Pioglitazone can delay the aging of EPCs by regulating telomerase activity; acarbose, sitagliptin and insulin can promote the proliferation, migration and adhesion of EPCs. In addition to lowering blood glucose, the effects of antihyperglycemics on EPCs may also be one of the mechanisms to improve the complications of diabetes. This article reviews the research progress on the regulation of EPC proliferation and function by antihyperglycemics.

Research progress on the role of pentraxin 3 in polycystic ovary syndrome
WU Wei,XU Jian
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 637-643.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.13
Abstract( 212 )   HTML( 6 )     PDF(1070KB)( 170 )

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disease of child-bearing period women and one of the main causes of infertility in women. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a multifunctional protein with a series of biological activities. PTX3 participates in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose metabolism, ovarian cumulus cell function, inflammatory factor activity, androgen metabolism, lipid absorption and transport, and endothelial cell function, thereby improving insulin resistance, promoting follicular development and ovulation, reducing chronic inflammation, inhibiting androgen levels, improving lipid metabolism abnormalities and preventing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, thus participating in the occurrence of PCOS and its complications. This article reviews the mechanism of PTX3 in PCOS and its complications, trying to provide new ideas and directions for the study of PCOS pathogenesis and its clinical diagnosis and treatment.

Research progress on etiologic diagnosis of ocular viral diseases
DUAN Runping,XU Yesheng,ZHENG Libin,YAO Yufeng
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 644-650.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.07.03
Abstract( 271 )   HTML( 13 )     PDF(1073KB)( 209 )

A large number of viruses have been found to be associated with ocular diseases, including human adenovirus, human herpesvirus (HHV), human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), and newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This group of diseases is prone to be misdiagnosed or missed diagnosis, resulting in serious tissue and visual damage. Etiological diagnosis is a powerful auxiliary mean to diagnose the ocular diseases associated with human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and varicella-zoster virus, and it provides the leading diagnosis evidence of infections with herpes simplex virus 2, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, HHV-6/7, HHV-8, HTLV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Virus isolation, immunoassay and genetic diagnosis are usually used for etiologic diagnosis. For genetic diagnosis, the PCR technique is the most important approach because of its advantages of rapid detection, convenient operation, high sensitivity and high specificity.

Remote monitoring of neonatal jaundice in newborns with ABO hemolytic disease
XU Chuncai,BAO Yingying,ZHU Jiajun,TENG Yanping,HE Yuanyuan,CHENG Ke,JI Fengjuan,WU Mingyuan
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 651-655.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.08
Abstract( 282 )   HTML( 5 )     PDF(1047KB)( 95 )

Objective: To explore the feasibility of remote monitoring of neonatal jaundice in newborns with ABO hemolytic disease. Methods: Forty six neonates of gestational age >35 weeks with ABO hemolytic disease admitted to Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 20th, 2020 to February 29th, 2020 were enrolled in the study (study group). The newborns were followed up at home after discharge, the transcutaneous bilirubin (TCB) levels were measured by parents using the provided device and the results were sent to the doctor by smart phone using the installed APP. Fifty six newborns with ABO hemolytic disease admitted in 2018 who received conventional outpatient follow-up after discharge served as the control group. The demographic characteristics, total serum bilirubin (TSB) level during hospitalization, number of outpatient visit and rate of re-admission due to rebound hyperbilirubinemia were compared between the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in gestational age, birth weight, delivery mode, gender, length of the first hospitalization, TSB level before phototherapy and before discharge, and the managements during the first hospitalization (all P>0.05). Compared with the control group, TSB level before readmission [(265±16) μmol/L vs. (295±15) μmol/L] and the number of outpatient visits (1.3±0.8 vs. 3.8±0.5) were significantly lower in the study group (all P < 0.01), while the rate of readmission (17.4%vs. 12.5%) and the weight at the time of readmission[(3398±452) g vs. (3477±324) g] were not significantly different (all P>0.05). No cases of acute bilirubin encephalopathy occurred in both groups. Conclusion: The remote follow-up for neonatal jaundice at home can effectively reduce the number of outpatient visits without increasing the risk of readmission and severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia for newborns with ABO hemolytic disease.

Application of three-in-one intelligent screening in outpatient department of children's hospital during COVID-19 epidemic
SHEN Meiping,TONG Lin,FU Cangcang,DONG Shuai,WANG Tianlin,ZHU Guohong,XU Hongzhen
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2020, 49(5): 656-661.   https://doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.09
Abstract( 325 )   HTML( 10 )     PDF(1085KB)( 140 )

Objective: To evaluate the application of three-in-one intelligent screening in outpatient pre-inspection in children's hospital. Methods: We randomly enrolled 100 children pre-screened by traditional method in the outpatient department of Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University from February 6th to 16th, 2020, and another 100 children by the intelligent three-in-one mode from February 17th to 27th, 2020. The traditional triage was conducted by nurses based on face-to-face, one-by-one interview of the epidemiological history and consultation department, and the temperature was measured before manual triage. The intelligent three-in-one model combined online rapid pre-inspection and triage, on-site manual confirmation, as well as synchronized online health education system. For on-line registered patients, the system automatically sent the COVID-19 epidemiological pre-screening triage questionnaire one hour before the appointment, requiring parents to complete and submit online before arriving at the hospital. The on-site registered patients were controlled at 100 m away from the hospital entrance. The nurses guided the parents to scan the QR code and fill in the COVID-19 epidemiological pre-examination triage questionnaire. At the entrance of the hospital, the nurse checked the guidance sheet and took the temperature again. The children with red guidance sheet were checked again and confirmed by pre-examination nurses, and accompanied to the isolation clinic through COVID-19 patients-only entrance. The children with yellow guidance sheet were guided to fever clinic. The children with green guidance sheet could go with their parents to the designated area, and then went to the corresponding consultation area. Health education was carried out throughout the treatment, and the system automatically posted the corresponding outpatient instructions and education courses. Parents would read the courses on their mobile phones and counsel online. The time of pre-examination and the coincidence rate of triage were compared between the two groups. Results: The three-in-one intelligent pre-inspection mode took an average of (25.6±8.0) s for each child, which was significantly shorter than the traditional pre-inspection mode (74.8±36.4) s (t=13.182, P < 0.01). The triage coincidence rate of the intelligent pre-inspection model was 98%, which was similar to that of traditional model (97%, χ2=0.251, P>0.05). Conclusion: The three-in-one intelligent pre-inspection model can effectively shorten the patient pre-check time, with similar triage coincidence rate to traditional model.

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