Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of patients with moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: We prospectively enrolled 30 treatment-naïve patients with confirmed COVID-19 after informed consent at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. The patients were randomized 1:1 to HCQ group and the control group. Patients in HCQ group were given HCQ 400 mg per day for 5 days plus conventional treatments, while those in the control group were given conventional treatment only. The primary endpoint was negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in respiratory pharyngeal swab on days 7 after randomization. This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and registered online (NCT04261517). Results: One patient in HCQ group developed to severe during the treatment. On day 7, nucleic acid of throat swabs was negative in 13 (86.7%) cases in the HCQ group and 14 (93.3%) cases in the control group (P>0.05). The median duration from hospitalization to virus nucleic acid negative conservation was 4 (1, 9) days in HCQ group, which is comparable to that in the control group [2 (1, 4) days, Z=1.27, P>0.05]. The median time for body temperature normalization in HCQ group was 1 (0, 2) day after hospitalization, which was also comparable to that in the control group [1 (0, 3) day]. Radiological progression was shown on CT images in 5 cases (33.3%) of the HCQ group and 7 cases (46.7%) of the control group, and all patients showed improvement in follow-up examinations. Four cases (26.7%) of the HCQ group and 3 cases (20%) of the control group had transient diarrhea and abnormal liver function (P>0.05). Conclusions: The prognosis of COVID-19 moderate patients is good. Larger sample size study are needed to investigate the effects of HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19. Subsequent research should determine better endpoint and fully consider the feasibility of experiments such as sample size.
The current epidemic situation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) still remained severe. As the National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine is the primary medical care center for COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Based on the present expert consensus carried out by National Health Commission and National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, our team summarized and established an effective treatment strategy centered on "Four-Anti and Two-Balance" for clinical practice. The "Four-Anti and Two-Balance" strategy included antivirus, anti-shock, anti-hyoxemia, anti-secondary infection, and maintaining of water, electrolyte and acid base balance and microecological balance. Meanwhile, integrated multidisciplinary personalized treatment was recommended to improve therapeutic effect. The importance of early viralogical detection, dynamic monitoring of inflammatory indexes and chest radiograph was emphasized in clinical decision-making. Sputum was observed with the highest positive rate of RT-PCR results. Viral nucleic acids could be detected in 10%patients' blood samples at acute period and 50%of patients had positive RT-PCR results in their feces. We also isolated alive viral strains from feces, indicating potential infectiousness of feces.Dynamic cytokine detection was necessary to timely identifying cytokine storms and application of artificial liver blood purification system. The "Four-Anti and Two-Balance" strategy effectively increased cure rate and reduced mortality. Early antiviral treatment could alleviate disease severity and prevent illness progression, and we found lopinavir/ritonavir combined with abidol showed antiviral effects in COVID-19. Shock and hypoxemia were usually caused by cytokine storms. The artificial liver blood purification system could rapidly remove inflammatory mediators and block cytokine storm.Moreover, it also favored the balance of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base and thus improved treatment efficacy in critical illness. For cases of severe illness, early and also short period of moderate glucocorticoid was supported. Patients with oxygenation index below 200 mmHg should be transferred to intensive medical center. Conservative oxygen therapy was preferred and noninvasive ventilation was not recommended. Patients with mechanical ventilation should be strictly supervised with cluster ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention strategies. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was not recommended except for patients with long course of disease, repeated fever and elevated procalcitonin (PCT), meanwhile secondary fungal infection should be concerned.Some patients with COVID-19 showed intestinal microbial dysbiosis with decreased probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, so nutritional and gastrointestinal function should be assessed for all patients.Nutritional support and application of prebiotics or probiotics were suggested to regulate the balance of intestinal microbiota and reduce the risk of secondary infection due to bacterial translocation. Anxiety and fear were common in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, we established dynamic assessment and warning for psychological crisis. We also integrated Chinese medicine in treatment to promote disease rehabilitation through classification methods of traditional Chinese medicine. We optimized nursing process for severe patients to promote their rehabilitation. It remained unclear about viral clearance pattern after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Therefore, two weeks' quarantine for discharged patients was required and a regular following up was also needed.The Zhejiang experience and suggestions have been implemented in our center and achieved good results. However, since COVID-19 was a newly emerging disease, more work was warranted to improve strategies of prevention, diagnosis and treatment for COVID-19.
Objective: To establish a SEIR epidemic dynamics model that can be used to evaluate the COVID-19 epidemic, and to predict and evaluate the COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei province using the proposed model. Methods: COVID-19 SEIR transmission dynamics model was established, which took transmission ability in latent period and tracking quarantine interventions into consideration. Based on the epidemic data of Hubei province from January 23, 2020 to February 24, 2020, the parameters of the newly established modified SEIR model were fitted. By using Euler integral algorithm to solve the modified SEIR dynamics model, the epidemic situation in Hubei province was analyzed, and the impact of prevention and control measures such as quarantine and centralized treatment on the epidemic development was discussed. Results: The theoretical estimation of the epidemic situation by the modified SEIR epidemic dynamics model is in good agreement with the actual situation in Hubei province. Theoretical analysis showed that prevention and control quarantine and medical follow-up quarantine played an important inhibitory effect on the outbreak of the epidemic.The centralized treatment played a key role in the rapid decline in the number of infected people. In addition, it is suggested that individuals should improve their prevention awareness and take strict self-protection measures to curb the increase in infected people. Conclusion: The modified SEIR model is reliable in the evaluation of COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei province, which provides a theoretical reference for the decision-making of epidemic interventions.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. All people including children are generally susceptible to COVID-19, but the condition is relatively mild for children. The diagnosis of COVID-19 is largely based on the epidemiological evidence and clinical manifestations, and confirmed by positive detection of virus nucleic acid in respiratory samples. The main symptoms of COVID-19 in children are fever and cough; the total number of white blood cell count is usually normal or decreased; the chest imaging is characterized by interstitial pneumonia, which is similar to other respiratory virus infections and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. Early identification, early isolation, early diagnosis and early treatment are important for clinical management. The treatment of mild or moderate type of child COVID-19 is mainly symptomatic. For severe and critical ill cases, the oxygen therapy, antiviral drugs, antibacterial drugs, glucocorticoids, mechanical ventilation or even extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be adopted, and the treatment plan should be adjusted timely through multi-disciplinary cooperation.
Objective: To investigate the effect of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibitor FK866 on the migration of human non-small cell cancer A549 cells and related mechanism. Methods: The inhibition effect of FK866 on A549 cells was tested by MTT assay. A549 cells were treated with 1.0 and 10.0 nmol/L FK866, and the cell migration was evaluated by modified wound scratch assay. The mRNA expression of E-cadherin and vimentin was detected by real-time RT-PCR, and the expression of ERK1/2 and pERK1/2 was determined by Western blotting. Results: FK866 inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner; after treatment for 72 h, the IC50 of FK866 was 9.55 nmol/L. When 1.0 nmol/L or 10.0 nmol/L FK866 was continuously applied 48 h before and 48 h after a scratch was made in wound scratch assay, the migration of A549 cells was significantly inhibited. However, when the FK866 was applied only 48 h after the scratch, the migration of A549 cells was inhibited by 10.0 nmol/L but not by 1.0 nmol/L FK866. The mRNA expression of E-cadherin and vimentin, and the activated ERK1/2 were significantly increased after 1.0 nmol/L FK866 treatment for 72 h. The pretreatment with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide(1.0 mmol/L) or ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (10.0 μmol/L) reversed the up-regulation of E-cadherin and vimentin expression induced by FK866. Conclusions: Low concentration of FK866 decreases the migration of A549 cells through the inhibition of NAD level, activation of ERK1/2 and up-regulation of E-cadherin expression. However, it also up-regulates the expression of vimentin, indicating that it may have dual effects on the migration of tumor cells.
Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are important components of the tumor microenvironment. Through secreting of multiple growth factors, cytokines and proteases, CAFs play a significant role in regulating the recruitment and function of various innate immune cells and adaptive immune cells in tumor microenvironment. In addition, extracellular matrix secreted by CAFs can also promote the formation of immunosuppression and hypoxia of tumor microenvironment. Here, we review the progress on CAFs in regulation of immune cells and tumor immunity.
Severe and critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were usually with underlying diseases, which led to the problems of complicated drug use, potential drug-drug interactions and medication errors in special patients. Based on Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (trial version 6), and Management of COVID-19: the Zhejiang experience, we summarized the experience in the use of antiviral drugs, corticosteroids, vascular active drugs, antibacterial, probiotics, nutrition support schemes in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients. It is also suggested to focus on medication management for evaluation of drug efficacy and duration of treatment, prevention and treatment of adverse drug reactions, identification of potential drug-drug interactions, individualized medication monitoring based on biosafety protection, and medication administration for special patients.
Objective: To analyze the dynamic changes of chest CT images of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Fifty-two cases of COVID-19 were admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. The consecutive chest CT scans were followed up for all patients with an average of 4 scans performed per patient during the hospitalization. The shortest interval between each scan was 2 days and the longest was 7 days. The shape, number and distribution of lung shadows, as well as the characteristics of the lesions on the CT images were reviewed. Results: The obvious shadows infiltrating the lungs were shown on CT images in 50 cases, for other 2 cases there was no abnormal changes in the lungs during the first CT examination. Ground-glass opacities (GGO) were found in 48 cases (92.3%), and 19 cases (36.5%) had patchy consolidation and sub-consolidation, which were accompanied with air bronchi sign in 17 cases (32.7%). Forty one cases (78.8%) showed a thickened leaflet interval, 4 cases (7.6%) had a small number of fibrous stripes. During hospitalization, GGO lesions in COVID-19 patients gradually became rare, the fibrous strip shadows increased and it became the most common imaging manifestation. The lesions rapidly progressed in 39 cases (75.0%) within 6-9 days after admission. On days 10-14 of admission, the lesions distinctly resolved in 40 cases (76.9%). Conclusion: The chest CT images of patients with COVID-19 have certain characteristics with dynamic changes, which are of value for monitoring disease progress and clinical treatment.
Objective: To investigate the CT findings of patients with different clinical types of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A total of 67 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 by nucleic acid testing were collected and divided into 4 groups according to the clinical stages based on Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (trial version 6). The CT imaging characteristics were analyzed among patients with different clinical types. Results: Among 67 patients, 3(4.5%) were mild, 35 (52.2%) were moderate, 22 (32.8%) were severe, and 7(10.4%) were critical ill. No significant abnormality in chest CT imaging in mild patients. The 35 cases of moderate type included 3 (8.6%) single lesions, the 22 cases of severe cases included 1 (4.5%) single lesion and the rest cases were with multiple lesions. CT images of moderate patients were mainly manifested by solid plaque shadow and halo sign (18/35, 51.4%); while fibrous strip shadow with ground glass shadow was more frequent in severe cases (7/22, 31.8%). Consolidation shadow as the main lesion was observed in 7 cases, and all of them were severe or critical ill patients. Conclusion: CT images of patients with different clinical types of COVID-19 have characteristic manifestations, and solid shadow may predict severe and critical illness.
Objective: To investigate the effect of icaritin on maturation and mineralization of mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and its mechanism. Methods: The cultured MC3T3-E1 cells were divided into blank control group, CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) inhibitor (AMD3100) group, icaritin group, and icaritin plus AMD3100 group. The expression of CXCR4, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and osteogenesis-related genes and proteins were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting after drug treatment for 24 h. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined with ALP kit on d3 and d6; calcium nodules were detected by alizarin red staining after drug treatment for 14 d. Results: Real time RT-PCR showed that compared with the blank control group, relative expressions of CXCR4, SDF-1 and osteogenesis-related genes in icaritin group were significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01); After AMD3100 treatment, the relative expression of CXCR4 gene was decreased (P<0.05). Western blot showed that compared with the blank control group, relative expressions of CXCR4, SDF-1 and osteogenesis-related proteins in the icaritin group were significantly increased (all P<0.01), but were decreased after AMD3100 was added (all P<0.01). The ALP activity of icaritin group was significantly higher than that of blank control group (all P<0.01) on d3 and d6 after drug treatment, while the activity of ALP was significantly decreased after AMD3100 treatment (all P<0.01). At d14 after drug treatment, compared with the blank control group, the area of alizarin red staining was increased in the icaritin group, while it was significantly reduced after the addition of AMD3100. Conclusion: Icaritin may promote maturation and mineralization of mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells through CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling pathway.
Objective: To compare the diagnostic efficacy among three RT-PCR test kits for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid detection. Methods: The throat swab samples from 40 hospitalized patients clinically diagnosed as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 16 hospitalized non-COVID-19 patients were recruited. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was detected in throat swab samples with RT-PCR test kits from Sansure Biotech ("Sansure" for short), Jiangsu Bioperfectus Technologies ("Bioperfectus" for short) and BGI Genomics ("BGI" for short). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and Kappa value were analyzed. The viral nucleic acid was extracted from the throat swab samples by one-step cleavage and magnetic bead methods, and the efficacy of two extraction methods was also compared. The results of magnetic bead method for nucleic acid extraction by two different extractors (Sansure Natch CS S12C Fully Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction System vs. Tianlong NP968-C Nucleic Acid Extractor) were also compared. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and kappa value were 95.00%, 87.50%, 95.00%, 87.50%and 0.825 for Sansure kit; 90.00%, 87.50%, 94.74%, 77.78%and 0.747 for the Bioperfectus kit, and 82.50%, 81.25%, 91.67%, 65.00%and 0.593 for the BGI kit, respectively. The positive, negative and total coincident rates and kappa value of viral nucleic acid detection results using the samples extracted by one-step cleavage and magnetic bead methods were 95.24%, 100.00%, 96.43%and 0.909, respectively, but the one-step cleavage method took only 25 min, while the magnetic bead method required 180 min. The positive, negative and total coincident rates and kappa value of viral nucleic acid detection results using the samples extracted by the two different nucleic acid extractors were 85.00%, 100.00%, 89.29% and 0.764, respectively. Conclusion: The detection efficacy for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by the Sansure kit is relatively higher and the one-step cleavage method has advantages of convenient operation and less time consuming.
Receptor interacting proteins (RIPs) are a group of threonine/serine protein kinases, which have relatively conserved kinase domains and different non-kinase domains, and are involved in physiological and pathological processes including innate immune response and inflammation. In recent years, many studies have shown that RIPs mediate cell necroptosis and triggers inflammatory responses by participating in the formation of necrotic complexes, and RIP1 and RIP3 are particularly closely related to cell necrosis. Cell necroptosis is a well-regulated way of cell death. The death signal that transmit through the TNF signaling pathway and the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway can recruit and phosphorylate mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), and eventually leading to disintegration and death of cells, and the release of cells intercellular material after cell disintegration can trigger an inflammatory reaction. This review mainly focuses on the major signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms that are involved in the mediation of necrosis and inflammation by RIPs. It also highlights the importance of RIPs in the development of inflammatory diseases and their potentials as therapeutic targets for inflammatory diseases.
Objective:To investigate the relationship between maximal infarct volume to benefit from intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and onset to needle time (ONT). Methods:The clinical and image data of acute ischemic stroke patients who received IVT in the second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine during May 2009 to June 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified into within-time-window group (ONT ≤ 4.5 h) and beyond-time-window group (ONT>4.5 h). Good and poor outcome were defined as modified Rankin scale (mRS) ≤ 2 or >2 at 3 months, respectively. The maximal infarct volume was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results:Among 587 patients (465 cases were within-time-window, 122 cases were beyond-time-window), baseline core volume was 15(2-46)mL,and 324 (55.2%) patients achieved good outcome. Compared with the good-outcome group, the baseline core volume was larger in the poor-outcome group (32 mL vs 5 mL,Z=-9.766,P<0.01). After adjusting age, ONT, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and atrial fibrillation, baseline infarct core volume independently predicted poor outcome (OR=1.014, 95% CI:1.008-1.020, P<0.01). The ROC curve analysis showed that the maximal infarct core volume for achieving good outcome in the within-time-window group and beyond-time-window group were 152 mL and 71mL, respectively. The maximal infarct volume to benefit from IVT diminished with the increasing delayed ONT of every 30 min (ρ=-0.691, P<0.05). Conclusion:The maximal infarct volume to benefit from thrombolysis is larger in patients treated within time window than those beyond the time window, and that volume diminishes with ONT delay.
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has been widely used in perioperative optimization. As an important component of ERAS, rehabilitation medicine mainly focuses on perioperative physical fitness management, respiratory training, exercise training to reduce the incidence of postoperative pulmonary infection, improve gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary function. This paper explains rehabilitation medicine for respiratory, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and digestive systems during the perioperative period.
Objective: To observe the expression of g6pd gene in the early development stage of wild zebrafish embryos. Methods: The collinearity of g6pd gene and the sequence similarity of G6pd protein were analyzed with gene database and BLAST software, respectively. Expression of g6pd gene in different development stages of zebrafish embryos was detected by in situ hybridization. The g6pd-EGFP-pCS2+ recombinant plasmids were microinjected into zebrafish embryos, and fluorescence was observed under a fluorescence microscope. The expression of G6pd protein at 24, 48 and 72 hour post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos was detected by Western blotting; the enzyme activity of G6pd at 24, 48 and 72 hpf zebrafish embryos was detected by modified G6pd quantitative ratio method. Results: The G6pd protein similarity of zebrafish and human was 88%, and that of zebrafish and mouse was 87%. The results of in situ hybridization showed that the g6pd gene was mainly expressed in the hematopoietic tissues of zebrafish; the results observed after microinjection of g6pd-EGFP-pCS2+ recombinant plasmid were consistent with the results of in situ hybridization. At 24, 48 and 72 hpf, the relative expression levels of G6pd protein in zebrafish embryos were 1.44±0.03, 1.47±0.05, and 1.54±0.02, respectively(P > 0.05); the G6pd enzyme activity levels were 1.74±0.17, 1.75±0.12, 1.71±0.22, respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The study has observed the expression of g6pd gene and G6pd protein, and G6pd enzyme activity in zebrafish embryos at different development phases, which provides a reference for the establishment of a zebrafish G6PD deficiency model.
Objective: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of endoscopic trans-fistula drainage (ETFD) for gastroesophageal anastomotic fistula with para-fistula abscess after esophagectomy. Methods: Among 456 esophageal cancer patients receiving esophagectomy between February 2012 and February 2017 in Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, 15 cases were diagnosed as gastroesophageal anastomotic fistula with para-fistula abscess after surgery. Seven cases received ETFD treatment (ETFD group), and 8 cases received conventional treatment (control group). Recovery of inflammatory markers and fistula, length of hospital stay after esophagectomy and total medical expenses were compared between ETFD group and control group. Results: All patients recovered in ETFD group. Time of white cell count returning to normal and decline of C-reactive protein, time of fistula healing and length of hospital stay after esophagectomy in ETFD group were significantly shorter than those of control group (all P < 0.05). And medical expenses in ETFD group was also lower (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ETFD is effective and safe for gastroesophageal anastomotic fistula with para-fistula abscess after esophagectomy.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a grade B infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In pace with the spreading of the disease, biosafety risk of the biological specimen preservation in biobanks has been significantly increased and biosafety protection during biological specimen preservation become increasingly important. According to the related national rules and the corresponding guidelines of Chinese Medical Association, this paper introduced the etiology about SARS-CoV-2, epidemiology about COVID-19, and the biosafety protection principles of individuals and biological specimen storage places in the process of personal protection, protection of collection, transport, handling, preservation, detection, post-detection disposal and emergencies of biological specimen. Emphasized to carry out a strict biosafety-risk assessment on biological specimen basing on virus load information, infectivity, and sample type (possible contact transmission, aerosol transmission, and fecal oral transmission).
Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects the cardio-pulmonary function of pregnant women, the anesthetic management and protection of medical staff in the cesarean section is significantly different from that in ordinary surgical operation. This paper reports a case of cesarean section for a woman with COVID-19, which was successfully performed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine on February 8, 2020. Anesthetic management, protection of medical staff and psychological intervention for the pregnant woman during the operation were discussed. Importance has been attached to the preoperative evaluation of pregnant women with COVID-19 and the implementation of anesthesia plan. For moderate patients, intraspinal anesthesia is preferred in cesarean section, and try to reduce its influence in respiration and circulation in both maternal and infant; general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation should be adopted for severe or critically ill patients. Ensure the safety of medical environment, and anesthetists should carry out level-Ⅲ standard protection. Special attention and support should be paid to maternal psychology: fully explanation before operation to reduce anxiety; relieve the discomfort during operation, so as to reduce tension; avoid the bad mood due to pain after operation.
A 53-year-old male patient presented with hypopsia of his right eye for 2 months and lower extremities weakness for 8 days. Thoracic MRI demonstrated a lesion at T3 level appearing as hyperintense on T2-weighted images with non-enhancement by contrast medium and demyelinating lesion was considered. Aquaporin-4-Ab was positive and the antibody titer was 1:320 in serum. The diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders was made. In addition, systemic lupus erythematosus and thymoma coexisted in this patient. After methylprednisolone impact treatment, plasma exchange and immunosuppressive therapy, the right vision and lower extremities weakness of the patient were improved.
Objective: To observe the clinical effect of plasma exchange and tocilizumab in treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Six patients with severe COVID-19 admitted in First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College from January 25 to February 25, 2020. Three patients were treated with plasma exchange and three patients were treated with tocilizumab. The effect on excessive inflammatory reaction of plasma exchange and tocilizumab was observed. Results: The C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased and the lymphocyte and prothrombin time were improved in 3 patients after treatment with plasma exchange; while inflammation level was not significantly decreased, and lymphocyte and prothrombin time did not improve in 3 patients treated with tocilizumab. Conclusion: For severe COVID-19 patients with strong inflammatory reaction, plasma exchange may be preferred.
Objective: To analysis the biomechanical and biocompatible properties of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) enhanced by chitosan short nanofibers(CSNF) and Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). Methods: Chitosan nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, and cut into short fibers by high speed dispersion. CPC with calcium phosphorus ratio of 1.5:1 was prepared by Biocement D method. The composition and structure of CPC, CSNF, RGD modified CSNF (CSNF-RGD), CSNF enhanced CPC (CPC-CSNF), RGD modified CPC-CSNF (CPC-CSNF-RGD) were observed by infrared spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scan electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties were measured by universal mechanical testing instrument. The adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3 cells were assessed using immunofluorescence staining and MTT method. Results: The distribution of CSNF in the scaffold was homogeneous, and the porous structure between the nanofibers was observed by SEM. The infrared spectrum showed the characteristic peaks at 1633 nm and 1585 nm, indicating that RGD was successfully grafted on chitosan nanofibers. The XRD pattern showed that the bone cement had a certain curability. The stain-stress test showed that break strengths were (17.74±0.54) MPa for CPC-CSNF and (16.67±0.56) MPa for CPCP-CSNF-RGD, both were higher than that of CPC(all P < 0.05). The immunofluorescence staining and MTT results: indicated that MC3T3 cells grew better on CPC-CSNF-RGD after 240 min of culture(all P < 0.05). Conclusion: CSNF-RGD can improve the biomechanical property and biocompatibility of CPC, indicating its potential application in bone tissue repair.
Objective: To screen genes involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage repair in rats with septic acute kidney injury (SAKI). Methods: Forty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into SAKI group (n=28) and sham operation group (n=12). The SAKI mouse model was established by cecal ligation and puncture. Blood and kidney samples were collected at 8, 24, and 48 h after surgery. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were measured by a dry biochemical analyzer. Serum inflammatory cytokines were detected by ELISA. Histopathological changes were observed with HE staining. The mtDNA damage repair related genes were screened by RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis; the mRNA and protein expression levels of related genes were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemisry, respectively. Results: Symptoms of sepsis were observed in SAKI group, and 16 out of 28 mice were died in the SAKI group; serum TNF-α, IL-6, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were higher than those in the sham group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Histopathological examination in SAKI group showed that renal tubular epithelial cells were swollen, inflammatory cells infiltrated, and a large number of cell vacuoles were seen, suggesting successful modeling. Mitochondrial DNA damage repair related genes Gadd45α, Bcl2l1, Cdkn1a, Jun, Rela, Nfkbia and Nfkb1 were screened out. The expression of these genes was detected by real-time RT-PCR, and the results were consistent with RNA sequencing trends. Immunohistochemical staining showed that Gadd45α was mainly expressed in the nucleus of renal tubular epithelial cells, and the positive rate of Gadd45α in SAKI group was higher than that in the sham operation group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Gadd45α, Bcl2l1, Cdkn1a, Jun, Rela, Nfkbia and Nfkb1 genes are involved in mtDNA damage repair in rats with SAKI, indicating that these genes may be used as new targets for prevention and treatment of SAKI.
A middle-aged male patient with recurrent hypoglycemia was diagnosed as insulinoma according to the symptoms and the laboratory tests. Laboratory tests also showed low cortisol and adrenocortico-tropic hormone (ACTH) levels, therefore adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed and hydrocortisone was given. The hormone replacement therapy was terminated after surgery, and ACTH and cortisol levels returned to normal.
In recent years, a large number of studies have achieved tumor targeting by mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)-based delivery system attributed to the tumor tropism of MSCs. Biomacromolecules and antineoplastic drugs loaded on MSC via internalization or cell membrane anchoring can be released or expressed at tumor site to perform their antitumor effects. The genetically modified MSC are extensively studied, however, the applications of MSCs in targeted delivery of antineoplastic drug with small molecules are not well summarized. In this review, MSCs homing mechanism and the distribution of injected MSCs in vivo is introduced; the examples of antitumor drug-primed MSCs and drug loaded MSCs are presented; the drug loading and releasing process from MSCs is also illustrated; finally, challenges and future perspectives of MSCs-based drug delivery system on realizing its full potential are prospected.
Hyperphenylalaninemia(HPA), an autosomal recessive disease, is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism, caused by the deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase(PAH) or tetrahydrobiopterin(BH4) which induced by mutations of genes. The accumulation of the clinical database and genetic information will enhance the development of novel personalized medicine and to provide more accurate and timely diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for HPA. This paper summarizes the correlations between HPA metabolism and PAH, BH4, pathogenic genes and their distributions in HPA, as well as the phenotypes and genotypes of HPA, so as to provide reference for personalized medicine for HPA.
Colorectal cancer is caused by the interaction of genetic and environment factors. Domestic and foreign scholars have attempted to develop several colorectal cancer risk prediction models, in order to identity risk factors, to screen for high risk population and evaluate the risk of developing colorectal cancer, so as to provide personalized screening protocols for individuals with different risk, and eventually reduce the incidence and mortality rate of colorectal cancer. Currently, the common colorectal cancer risk prediction models were mainly developed based on case-control study and cohort study. Models developed in European and American regions and Asia (excluding China) only include common risk factors, while Chinese models also include hereditary factors on the bases of common risk factors. However, the development and verification of each model are mainly based on local population, whether it can be applied for other population need to be determined. This article reviews the development, validation and evaluation of the risk prediction models, in order to provide a basis for developing more precise risk prediction models for colorectal cancer.
Objective: To establish the indexes and weights of risk assessment of shellfish poisoning outbreak caused by red tide. Methods: The risk assessment indexes were developed with the methods of literature review, brainstorm and expert consultation, and the weights of indexes were calculated by the method of analytic hierarchy process. The established indexes contained the risk possibility, impacts of public health, population vulnerability and resilience. The relative risk indexes(integrated risk indexes) of different shellfish poisoning were computed by combining hierarchy process and TOPSIS methods. Moreover, the weights of indexes were further used to generate absolute risk values by multiplying indexes. Results: Four primary indexes and 17 secondary indexes were identified for risk assessment of shellfish poisoning outbreak. Of 17 secondary indexes, the knowing rate of shellfish poisoning, medical accessibility, the number of people being affected, laboratory testing capacity and the habits of eating seafood of local residents had relatively large weights (0.0876, 0.0840, 0.0716, 0.0703 and 0.0644, respectively), which accounted for nearly 38% of the total weight. All consistency ratio (CR) were less than 0.1. The index system was applied in Cangnan county of Zhejiang province. The results showed the relative risk indexes of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) were 0.4526, 0.7116, 0.1657 and 0.2884, and the absolute risk values were 0.2542, 0.2668, 0.1907 and 0.2184, respectively. The risk orders of the 4 kinds of shellfish poisoning sorted by relative risk indexes and absolute risk values were consistent. Conclusion: The indexes and weights of risk assessment of shellfish poisoning outbreak caused by red tide are established, which can provide scientific advice for prevention and control of shellfish poisoning outbreak.
Objective: To identify hub genes and key pathways associated with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), and to explore possible intervention strategy. Methods: The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ATC were identified by Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) combined with using R language; the pathway enrichment of DEGs were performed by using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO). The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed by STRING database and visualized by Cytoscape. Furthermore, the hub genes and key nodes were calculated by MCODE. Finally, the drug repurposing was performed by L1000CDS2. Results: A total of 2087 DEGs were identified. The DEGs were clustered based on functions and pathways with significant enrichment analysis, among which PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, inflammatory response, extracellular matrix organization were significantly upregulated. The PPI network was constructed and the most significant three modules and nine genes were filtered. Twenty-two potential compounds were repurposed for ATC treatment. Conclusion: Using integrated bioinformatics analysis, we have identified hub genes and key pathways in ATC, and provide novel strategy for the treatment of ATC.
Ion channels mediate ion transport across membranes, and play vital roles in processes of matter exchange, energy transfer and signal transduction in living organisms. Recently, structural studies of ion channels have greatly advanced our understanding of their ion selectivity and gating mechanisms. Structural studies of voltage-gated potassium channels elucidate the structural basis for potassium selectivity and voltage-gating mechanism; structural studies of voltage-gated sodium channels reveal their slow and fast inactivation mechanisms; and structural studies of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels provide complex and diverse structures of TRP channels, and their ligand gating mechanisms. In the article we summarize recent progress on ion channel structural biology, and outlook the prospect of ion channel structural biology in the future.
Objective: To investigate the effect of resveratrol on peak bone mineral density and bone mass in growing rats. Methods: Thirty-six female healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, icariin group and resveratrol group with 12 rats in each group. Icariin (25 mg·kg-1·d-1), resveratrol (8.4 mg·kg-1·d-1) or equal volume of distilled water were given by gavage to icariin group, resveratrol group and control group, respectively. The rats were sacrificed after 12 weeks. The organ indexes were calculated and pathology sections were observed; the bone mineral density (BMD), bone biomechanics, serum bone metabolism index, and results of micro-CT scan were analyzed. Results: During the experiment, the body weight of rats showed an increasing trend and there was no significant difference among three groups (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in organ index of vital organs and pathological changes among the groups (all P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the whole body BMD, and the BMDs of femur and vertebrae in icariin and resveratrol groups were significantly increased after 12 weeks (all P<0.05). The maximum load values of femur and vertebrae, as well as elastic modulus of vertebrae in icariin and resveratrol groups were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Micro-CT scan showed that the volumetric BMD, number of trabecular, trabecular thickness and bone volume/tissue volume of the cancellous bone in icariin and resveratrol groups were significantly higher and the trabecular separation was significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01); while there was no significant difference in volumetric BMD of cortical bone for femur. The contents of osteocalcin in icariin and resveratrol groups were significantly higher than those in control group (all P<0.05), while the contents of tartarte-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) were significantly lower than those in control group (all P<0.05).Conclusion: Resveratrol can inhibit bone resorption and enhance bone formation, so as to improve the peak bone mass and bone density, enhance bone strength and improve the microstructure of bone tissue in young rats.
Objective: To screening coagulation and anticoagulation genes and mutations in Chinese patients with venous thromboembolism suspected of inhered thrombophilia. Methods: Patients with venous thromboembolism caused by inherited thrombophilia were collected from the second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine during June 2015 and December 2017. Gene sequencing was conducted to screen the anticoagulant-related genes PROC, PROS1, SERPINC1 and coagulation-related genes F5, F2, F8, CBS, MTHFR. The thousands of human genome database, ESP6500 database, Genoma database, HGMD mutation database were used to compare the mutation sites, and the pathogenic mutation sites were predicted according to SIFT, Polyphen, MutationTaster and CADD databases. Results: Among 25 patients screened, eight patients with PROC mutations, two patients with PROS1 mutations, three patients with SERPINC1 mutations; one patient with F5 mutation, one patient with F2 mutation, one patient with F8 mutation, two patient with CBS mutations, and one patient with MTHFR mutation. Conclusion: The second generation gene sequencing helps to diagnose inherited thrombophilia and guide the decision of anticoagulation duration.
Objective: To study the feasibility and effect of PeriCam PSI system guiding the establishment of ischemia/reperfusion injury model in rats. Methods: A total of 70 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the control group(n=6), PSI monitoring group(n=34) and traditional operation group(n=30). Ischemia reperfusion model was established with reference to improve Zea-Longa line plug method. After the model established, the blood flow to the brain of control group, PSI monitoring group (ischemic 2 h, 24 h reperfusion) were observed and recorded respectively with PSI. The rats were then executed after 24 h, and the 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and HE staining were used to observe the brain tissue. Results: The survival rate and modeling success rate of PSI monitoring group were higher than those of the traditional operation group(all P < 0.05). The blood perfusion in the brain and the distribution of blood vessels were clearly observed in the control group, and the data were normal. In 2 h ischemic group, the arterial flow was interrupted in the right cerebral artery, and the blood flow in the middle arterial blood supply was significantly decreased than that in the control group(P < 0.05). After the recovery of 24 h, the artery in the right side of the brain was restored to blood flow, but the blood flow in the partial supply area decreased, unable to recover to normal level. The TTC staining results indicated that there were obvious infarcts in the right brain tissue of PSI monitoring group, and the infarct area was more stable than that of the traditional operation group. The results of HE staining showed that the structure of brain tissue in the control group was normal, and the morphological rules of nerve cells were not change. While in brain tissue from PSI monitoring group, cortex and ischemia half dark stripe, nerve cell degeneration, necrosis and glial fiber disintegration, liquefaction, and light color, screen mesh in ischemic central area were observed. Conclusion: PSI system can guide ischemia reperfusion model building and improve the success rate of the model.
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of two types of segmented biodegradable esophageal stents in treatment of refractory benign esophagus strictures. Methods: Uncovered biodegradable segmented stent and fully-covered biodegradable segmented stent were implanted into the porcine esophagus (6 for each). Data on biodegradation, complications, and tissue reactions were compared between two groups. Results: All animals kept good general conditions; no death, decreased food intake, weight loss and malnutrition were observed. No perforation, ulcer, hemorrhage, stent migration and severe complications occurred. Stents degradation commenced at week 3. Stents structure breakage and complete stents absorption occurred at week 7-8 and week 9-10 in uncovered stents. While in fully-covered stents, stents structure breakage and complete stents absorption occurred at week 8-9 and week 10-11. Hyperplasia was prominent at week 1-3 and ameliorated at week 6 after stent implantation. A longer degradation period was present in fully-covered stents than in uncovered stents, while fully-covered stents induced tissue reactions at early stage were mild. Conclusions: The application of biodegradable esophageal stents with a segmented trunk in refractory benign esophagus strictures worth further investigation. The fully-covered stent has longer degradation period, which may be more suitable for clinical use.
Objective: To investigate the effects of cysteinyl leukotrienes receptor (CysLTR) antagonists on global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CI/R) injury in gerbils, and to explore its mechanism. Methods: Totally 40 gerbils weighting 45-65 g were randomized into sham, saline, Pranlukast and HAMI 3379 groups with 10 animals in each. The CI/R model was established in gerbils by bilateral common carotid occlusion for 10 min followed by reperfusion. After ischemia, the CysLTR antagonists Pranlukast (0.1 mg/kg) and HAMI 3379 (0.1 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days in the last two groups, while the former two groups were injected with saline only (10 mL/kg). After 24 h or 14 d reperfusion, neurological deficit score was evaluated and the behavioral dysfunction was assessed, respectively. And 14 d after reperfusion, the neuron morphology of cerebral cortex was observed in brain sections stained with Cresyl violet. In addition, the Iba-1 (microgila) and GFAP (astrocyte) positive cells in cerebral cortex were observed by using immunohistochemitry method. Results: CI/R models were successfully established in 21 out of 30 gerbils with 7 in saline group, 6 in Pranlukast group, and 8 in HAMI 3379 group. Compared with saline group, Pranlukast and HAMI 3379 significantly attenuated neurological deficits, improved the behavioral function 24 h after reperfusion(all P < 0.01); Pranlukast and HAMI 3379 also significantly improved the behavioral function 14 days after reperfusion(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Compared with saline group, the neurological symptom scores in Pranlukast and HAMI 3379 groups presented a trend of amelioration 14 d after reperfusion, but it was not significant(P > 0.05). In addition, Pranlukast and HAMI 3379 also inhibited the neuron loss and injury, suppressed microgila and astrocyte activation 14 d after reperfusion(all P < 0.01). Conclusion: CysLTR antagonists Pranlukast and HAMI 3379 have long-term neuroprotective effect on chronic brain injury induced by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in gerbils.
Objective: To compare the effects of 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal magnetic field (SEMF) and 50 Hz 0.6 mT pulsed electromagnetic field(PEMF) on the maturation and mineralization of rat calvaria osteoblasts. Methods: Primary cultured rat calvarial osteoblasts were divided into 3 groups:blank control group, SEMF group and PEMF group. The rats in SEMT and PEMT groups were treated with 50 Hz 1.8 mT SEMF or 50 Hz 0.6 mT PEMF for 90 min/d, respectively. Western blotting and Real-time RT-PCR were used to detect the protein and mRNA expressions of Collagen-1, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), osterix (OSX) and Runt-associated transcription factor 2(Runx-2). The alkaline phosphatase(ALP) activity was detected by ALP test kits at d6 and d9 after treatment, and by ALP staining using azo coupling at d10 after treatment. The formation of calcium nodules was observed by alizarin red staining. Results: Compared with blank control group, the protein and mRNA expressions of Collagen-1, BMP-2, OSX and Runx-2 in SEMT and PEMT groups were significantly increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05); while the mRNA expressions of Collagen-1 and BMP-2 in PEMF group were significantly higher than those in SEMF group. After 6 days treatment, the activity of ALP in PEMF group was significantly higher than that in blank control group (P < 0.05), while such difference was not observed in SEMF group (P>0.05); after 9 days treatment, the activities of ALP in both PEMF and SEMP groups were significantly higher than that in blank control group (all P < 0.05), but the difference between PEMF and SEMF groups was not significant (P>0.05). After 10 days treatment, ALP staining was increased in both PEMF and SEMF groups compared with that in blank control group (all P < 0.01), and the stained area was bigger in PEMF group than that in SEMF group (P < 0.05). After 12 days treatment, calcium nodules were increased in PEMF and SEMF groups compared with that in blank control group (all P < 0.01), and more calcium nodules were observed in PEMF group than SEMF group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Both 50 Hz 1.8 mT that in SEMF and 50 Hz 0.6 mT PEMF can promote the maturation and mineralization of osteoblasts, and the effect of PEMF is more marked.
Objective: To investigate the rapid and accurate method for the detection of dengue virus (DENV) by using nicking enzyme assisted strand-displacement amplification (SDA) combined with gold nanoparticles-based lateral flow strip. Methods: Total RNA of the virus was extracted by using magnetic beads method and transcribed to cDNA for SDA detection system. Nicking enzyme-assisted method was used for detecting DENV, and agarose gel electrophoresis was used for analyzing the sensitivity of SDA amplification products. A gold nanoparticles-based lateral flow strip was developed based on the principle of nucleic acid base complementary pairing to design the test line and control line. The gold particles were prepared by using sodium citrate reduction method for gold nanoparticles-based lateral flow strip construction. Results: The sensitivity of the SDA method was 10 fmol/L, and the sensitivity of gold nanoparticles-based lateral flow strip based on SDA method was also 10 fmol/L. In a linear range from 10 fmol/L to 1012 fmol/L, the corresponding linear correlation coefficient (R2) of DENV was 0.98. The specificity of nanoparticles-based lateral flow strip based on SDA for DENV detection was high, which was no crossing with other control groups. Conclusion: A gold nanoparticles-based lateral flow strip based on SDA method for DENV detection has been established, which is convenient, fast, and the result is visible to naked eyes.
Objective: To determine the effects of cysteinyl leukotriene receptors (CysLT1R and CysLT2R) on phagocytosis of mouse BV2 microglial cells. Methods: BV2 cells were stimulated with microglial activators lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CysLT receptor agonists LTD4. The phagocytosis of BV2 cells was observed by immunofluorescence analysis and flow cytometry. The intracellular distributions of CysLT1R and CysLT2R in BV2 cells were examined with immunofluorescence staining. Results: Both LPS and LTD4 could significantly enhance the phagocytosis of BV2 cells, and such effect could be inhibited by CysLT1R selective antagonist Montelukast and CysLT2R selective antagonist HAMI 3379. The activation of BV2 cells induced by LTD4 or LPS resulted in changes in intracellular distributions of CysLT1R and CysLT2R. CysLT1R and CysLT2R was co-localization with a similar distribution. Conclusion: CysLT1R and CysLT2R regulate the phagocytosis of mouse BV2 microglial cells with a synergistic effect.
Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of modified lateral window for maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA). Methods: Fifty-five patients who visited the Stomatology Hospital Affiliated to Zhejiang University School of Medicine between June 2012 and October 2014 were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent MSFA with Bio-Oss grafts based on modified access window. During the operation the vertical height of the bony window was reduced from 6-8 mm of conventional oval window to 4-5 mm of slot-shaped window. The sinus membrane was detached completely via the lateral access and large particle Bio-Oss graft was placed in the sub-mucosal space. The implant survival, graft height, graft volume and resorption rates were measured. Intra-op and post-op complications were recorded. Results: There were 86 implants inserted. The 2-4 year cumulative survival rates were 97.67% by implant-based analysis and 96.36% by patient-based analysis. The residual bone height was (4.7±2.6) mm and bone width was (8.4±2.7) mm. The bone height of implantation site immediately after operation was (16.1±2.5) mm and it was (16.2±2.2) mm at restoration. The bone heights at 1 and 2 years after operation were (14.9±2.5) mm and (13.6±2.6) mm, respectively. The graft height was (10.6±2.8) mm and the graft volume was (1569±745) mm3 immediately after operation. The resorption rate of graft height 6 months after operation was 3.79% and that of graft volume was 7.87%. The 1-year accumulative resorption rate of graft height was 6.63% and that of graft volume was 10.89%. The 2-year accumulative resorption rate of graft height was 7.58% and that of graft volume was 15.26%. Small membrane perforation during MSFA was observed in 5 cases and all were successfully repaired by a collagen Bio-Gide membrane. Conclusion: The modified lateral technique obtains high implant survival rate, excellent graft stability and low complication rate at 2-4 year clinical follow-up, indicating that it is a safe, predictable and minimally invasive surgical method for severe atrophic maxillary posterior dentition.
Objective: To analyze the roles of multidisciplinary team (MDT) in the diagnosis and treatment of suspected cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: The clinical data of 48 patients with suspected COVID-19 admitted in Jinhua Municipal Central Hospital from January 21, 2020 to March 20, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In the 48 suspected cases, 18 were diagnosed with COVID-19, and 30 were excluded. Each of the confirmed cases were discussed among MDT for 2 to 12 times with an average of (4.7±3.2) times; while for non-COVID-19 patients were discussed for 2 to 4 times with an average of (2.3±0.6) times. With the guidance of MDT, one COVID-19 patient was transferred to designated provincial hospital after effective treatment; one patient complicated with acute cholecystitis underwent gallbladder puncture and drainage; and COVID-19 was excluded in a highly suspected patient after alveolar lavage fluid examination. Except one transferred patient, all 17 confirmed COVID-19 patients were cured and discharged. There was no cross-infection occurred in suspected patients during the hospitalization. There were no deaths and no medical staff infections. Conclusion: The efficiency of diagnosis and treatment for suspected COVID-19 patients can be improved with MDT, particularly for complicated cases.
Objective: To investigate the effect of rapamycin on Parkinson's disease (PD) and its underlying mechanism in mice. Methods: Sixty SPF adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, model group and treatment group. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine(MPTP) was used to induce Parkinson's disease in model group and treatment group. All mice were trained to cross the runway and were subjected to computer-assisted CatWalk. The numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH+) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) were assessed by unbiased stereology using the optical fractionator method; protein expression was detected by Western blot analysis; and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by spectrophotometry. Results: In the model group, a decrease in stride rate and an increase in variation of stance and swing were noted by CatWalk system (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); the numbers of TH+ neurons decreased (P < 0.01); expression of p-Akt, p-S6K, p-S6 and p-ULK increased (all P < 0.01); LC3-Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio decreased (P < 0.01); MDA level was elevated while the levels of SOD and GSH-PX were reduced (all P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, after treated with rapamycin, the abnormal behavior including the stride length, variation of stance and swing and step patterns induced by MPTP were all improved (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); the numbers of TH+ neurons increased (P < 0.05); the expression of p-Akt, p-S6K, p-S6 and p-ULK was suppressed (all P < 0.01); the LC3-Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio was upregulated (P < 0.05); MDA level decreased while the levels of GSH-Px and SOD increased (all P < 0.01). Conclusion: Rapamycin inhibits the activation of mTOR pathway, which contributes to protect against the loss of dopaminergic neurons and provide behavioral improvements in mice with Parkinson's disease. These results are partially related to the ability of rapamycin in inducing autophagy and reducing oxidative stress.
Objective: To investigate the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) on TLR/NF-κB independent pathway and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) level in diabetic MyD88-knockout mice. Methods: Diabetes was induced by feeding high-fat/high-sugar diet and injection of low-dose streptozotocin in MyD88-knockout mice. The diabetic mice were randomly divided into model group, positive control group and LBPs group. The expressions of TRAM, TRIF, TRAF6, RIP1 and TNF-α mRNA and proteins in mouse peritoneal macrophages were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting after LBPs treatment for 3 month. Serum TNF-α was determined with ELISA kit. Results: Real time RT-PCR showed that compared with model group, the relative expressions of Tram, Trif, Traf6 and Tnf-α mRNA in macrophages of LBPs group were significantly decreased and expression of Rip1 was significantly increased (all P < 0.05). Expression of TRAM, TRIF, TRAF6, RIP1 and TNF-α proteins as well as serum TNF-α level had no significant difference between LBPs group and model group (all P > 0.05). Conclusion: LBPs may not inhibit serum TNF-α level through TLR/NF-κB independent pathway.
Objective: To observe and verify the key anatomies of DeLancey's three levels of vaginal support theory through laparoscopic surgery by space dissection technique. Methods: The features and stress performance of related anatomies were observed and analyzed in laparoscopic type C hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for cervical cancer by natural space exposures. Results: The main ligament-like structure at level Ⅰ was the uterosacral ligament, which acted as the main apical fixation in the sacral direction, while the cardinal ligament was mainly composed of vascular system, lymph-vessels and loose connective tissue around them, lacking the tough connective tissue structures, which was connected to the internal iliac vascular system. There were no strong ligaments connected to the tendinous arch of pelvic fascia (ATFP) at the lateral side of vaginal wall at level Ⅱ. ATFP was the edge of the superior fascia of pelvic diaphragm, which was bounded by the fascia of the obturator. Its surface was smooth and close to the levator ani muscle and fuses with the vaginal fascia in about one thirds of middle lower segments of the vagina. When the ureter tunnel is separated, dense connective structures can be found in both anterior and posterior walls near the intersection of the ureter across uterine artery, fixing the bilateral angle of the bladder triangle, starting from the cervix and vagina and ending in the tunica muscularis vesicae urinariae. Conclusion: Based on the laparoscopic anatomy, the pelvic floor fascia ligament support above the levator ani muscle can be considered mainly around the vagina, and fascial ligament above the levator ani muscle can be simply considered as two parallel planes forming a "double hammock" structure, which may provide more anatomic data for pelvic floor reconstruction.
Objective: To explore the risk factors of anxiety and depression in patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) so as to achieve early intervention and better clinical prognosis. Methods: Seventy-six patients with suspected COVID-19 in fever isolation wards of Second Hospital of Lanzhou University were enrolled From January 31, 2020 to February 22, 2020. Their clinical baseline data were collected. The anxiety of patients was assessed by Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the depression of patients was assessed by Hamilton Depression Scale. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the risk factors of anxiety and depression in these patients. Results: Female patients are more likely to have anxiety (OR=3.206, 95%CI:1.073-9.583, P < 0.05) and depression (OR=9.111, 95%CI:2.143-38.729, P < 0.01) than male patients; patients with known contact history of epidemic area and personnel in epidemic area are more likely to have depression (OR=3.267, 95%CI:1.082-9.597, P < 0.05). Conclusion: During the isolation treatment of suspected COVID-19 patients, early psychological intervention should be carried out for the female patients with known contact history of epidemic area and personnel in epidemic area, and drug treatment should be given in advance if necessary.
Olfactory adaptation is an important physiological function of animals, which can protect their own neurons from overstimulation, and be better to deal with all kinds of stimuli in the surrounding environment. In this article, we discuss the neuronal basis of olfactory adaptation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Up to now, several intracellular regulatory factors have been discovered to be associated with olfactory adaptation in Caenorhabditis elegans, including cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling in the olfactory neurons AWC, OSM-9 in transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channel, arrestin ARR-1, diglyceride (DAG) pathway in G protein signaling pathways, etc. However, the neural circuits of the olfactory adaptation remains largely unknown. This paper reviews molecular and cell biological mechanism of olfactory adaptation in Caenorhabditis elegans, so as to provide reference for studies on olfactory sensation in advanced animals.
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of pregnant women complicated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: The clinical data of 3 pregnant women with COVID-19 admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 19 to February 10, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There was one case in the first-trimester pregnancy (case 1), one in the second-trimester pregnancy (case 2) and one in third-trimester pregnancy (case 3). Cough, fever, fatigue, lung imaging changes were the main manifestations. The white cell count, lymphocyte percentage had no significantly changes in case 1 and case 3, while the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), IL-6 and IL-10 elevated. The lymphocyte count and lymphocyte percentage decreased and the inflammatory indicators significantly increased in case 2. All patients were treated with antiviral, antitussive, oxygen inhalation; case 3 received glucocorticoids, case 2 with severe illness received glucocorticoids and additionally gamma globulin. All three cases were cured and discharged. Case 1 with early pregnancy chose to terminate pregnancy after discharge; case 2 chose to continue pregnancy without obstetric complications; and case 3 had cesarean section delivery due to abnormal fetal heart monitoring. Conclusion: The report shows that COVID-19 in pregnancy women could be cured with active treatment, and the maternal and fetal outcomes can be satisfactory.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a multi-etiological chronic disease characterized by a progressive elevation in pulmonary resistance and vascular remodeling. Its pathogenesis is complicated. Recently, emerging researches suggest that autophagy, as a self-protection mechanism maintaining the intracellular environment homeostasis in eukaryotes, participate in the occurrence and development of various types of PAH. Autophagy can regulate the survival, apoptosis of pulmonary vascular wall cells and secretion of vasoactive substances and inflammatory cytokines, thus influencing pulmonary vascular homeostasis. Some drugs based on regulating autophagy activity can effectively improve the prognosis of PAH. In this article, the regulatory role of autophagy on the development of pulmonary hypertension is reviewed to provide insight into PAH and its treatment.
Objective: To investigate the clinical outcome of patients with moderate type of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after discharge by retesting viral nucleic acid. Methods: Seven patients with moderate COVID-19 met the discharge criteria enacted by National Health Commission were quarantined in hospital for 7 days, then continuously quarantined at home for 4 weeks after discharged. During the quarantined period, the symptoms and signs were documented, and sputum or nasal swab and feces samples were collected to test SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by RT-PCR method. Results: There was no symptoms and signs during the quarantine period in all 7 patients. However, respiratory swabs from 3 patients were confirmed positive of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid at 5 to 7 days after they met the discharge criteria. Conclusion: There is a relatively high incidence of positive viral nucleic acid in patients met the discharge criteria, and it is suggested that patients met the current discharge criteria should be quarantined in hospital for another 7 days and the follow-up viral testing is necessary.
Enhanced recovery after surgery is a multimodal perioperative strategy according to the evidence-based medicine and multidisciplinary collaboration, aiming to improve the restoration of functional capacity after surgery by reducing surgical stress, optimal control of pain, early oral diet and early mobilization. Compared with other sub-specialty in general surgery, pancreatic surgery is characterized by complex disease, highly difficult procedure and more postoperative complications. Accordingly, pancreatic surgery shares a slow development in enhanced recovery after surgery. In this review, the feasibility, safety, application progress, prospect and controversy of enhanced recovery after surgery in pancreatic surgery are discussed.
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is widely disseminated in human, and Hp infection causes various gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric cancer. Different genotypes of Hp may cause different diseases, so the genotyping is important for clinical and basic research of Hp. This article introduces the methods for Hp genotyping, including multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and whole-genome sequencing. By reviewing the application of these techniques in Hp genotyping and comparing their advantages and disadvantages, the article provides a theoretical basis for research into the pathogenesis, antibiotic resistance, and epidemiology of Hp infection.