Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of patients with moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: We prospectively enrolled 30 treatment-naïve patients with confirmed COVID-19 after informed consent at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. The patients were randomized 1:1 to HCQ group and the control group. Patients in HCQ group were given HCQ 400 mg per day for 5 days plus conventional treatments, while those in the control group were given conventional treatment only. The primary endpoint was negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in respiratory pharyngeal swab on days 7 after randomization. This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and registered online (NCT04261517). Results: One patient in HCQ group developed to severe during the treatment. On day 7, nucleic acid of throat swabs was negative in 13 (86.7%) cases in the HCQ group and 14 (93.3%) cases in the control group (P>0.05). The median duration from hospitalization to virus nucleic acid negative conservation was 4 (1, 9) days in HCQ group, which is comparable to that in the control group [2 (1, 4) days, Z=1.27, P>0.05]. The median time for body temperature normalization in HCQ group was 1 (0, 2) day after hospitalization, which was also comparable to that in the control group [1 (0, 3) day]. Radiological progression was shown on CT images in 5 cases (33.3%) of the HCQ group and 7 cases (46.7%) of the control group, and all patients showed improvement in follow-up examinations. Four cases (26.7%) of the HCQ group and 3 cases (20%) of the control group had transient diarrhea and abnormal liver function (P>0.05). Conclusions: The prognosis of COVID-19 moderate patients is good. Larger sample size study are needed to investigate the effects of HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19. Subsequent research should determine better endpoint and fully consider the feasibility of experiments such as sample size.
The current epidemic situation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) still remained severe. As the National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine is the primary medical care center for COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Based on the present expert consensus carried out by National Health Commission and National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, our team summarized and established an effective treatment strategy centered on "Four-Anti and Two-Balance" for clinical practice. The "Four-Anti and Two-Balance" strategy included antivirus, anti-shock, anti-hyoxemia, anti-secondary infection, and maintaining of water, electrolyte and acid base balance and microecological balance. Meanwhile, integrated multidisciplinary personalized treatment was recommended to improve therapeutic effect. The importance of early viralogical detection, dynamic monitoring of inflammatory indexes and chest radiograph was emphasized in clinical decision-making. Sputum was observed with the highest positive rate of RT-PCR results. Viral nucleic acids could be detected in 10%patients' blood samples at acute period and 50%of patients had positive RT-PCR results in their feces. We also isolated alive viral strains from feces, indicating potential infectiousness of feces.Dynamic cytokine detection was necessary to timely identifying cytokine storms and application of artificial liver blood purification system. The "Four-Anti and Two-Balance" strategy effectively increased cure rate and reduced mortality. Early antiviral treatment could alleviate disease severity and prevent illness progression, and we found lopinavir/ritonavir combined with abidol showed antiviral effects in COVID-19. Shock and hypoxemia were usually caused by cytokine storms. The artificial liver blood purification system could rapidly remove inflammatory mediators and block cytokine storm.Moreover, it also favored the balance of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base and thus improved treatment efficacy in critical illness. For cases of severe illness, early and also short period of moderate glucocorticoid was supported. Patients with oxygenation index below 200 mmHg should be transferred to intensive medical center. Conservative oxygen therapy was preferred and noninvasive ventilation was not recommended. Patients with mechanical ventilation should be strictly supervised with cluster ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention strategies. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was not recommended except for patients with long course of disease, repeated fever and elevated procalcitonin (PCT), meanwhile secondary fungal infection should be concerned.Some patients with COVID-19 showed intestinal microbial dysbiosis with decreased probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, so nutritional and gastrointestinal function should be assessed for all patients.Nutritional support and application of prebiotics or probiotics were suggested to regulate the balance of intestinal microbiota and reduce the risk of secondary infection due to bacterial translocation. Anxiety and fear were common in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, we established dynamic assessment and warning for psychological crisis. We also integrated Chinese medicine in treatment to promote disease rehabilitation through classification methods of traditional Chinese medicine. We optimized nursing process for severe patients to promote their rehabilitation. It remained unclear about viral clearance pattern after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Therefore, two weeks' quarantine for discharged patients was required and a regular following up was also needed.The Zhejiang experience and suggestions have been implemented in our center and achieved good results. However, since COVID-19 was a newly emerging disease, more work was warranted to improve strategies of prevention, diagnosis and treatment for COVID-19.
Objective: To establish a SEIR epidemic dynamics model that can be used to evaluate the COVID-19 epidemic, and to predict and evaluate the COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei province using the proposed model. Methods: COVID-19 SEIR transmission dynamics model was established, which took transmission ability in latent period and tracking quarantine interventions into consideration. Based on the epidemic data of Hubei province from January 23, 2020 to February 24, 2020, the parameters of the newly established modified SEIR model were fitted. By using Euler integral algorithm to solve the modified SEIR dynamics model, the epidemic situation in Hubei province was analyzed, and the impact of prevention and control measures such as quarantine and centralized treatment on the epidemic development was discussed. Results: The theoretical estimation of the epidemic situation by the modified SEIR epidemic dynamics model is in good agreement with the actual situation in Hubei province. Theoretical analysis showed that prevention and control quarantine and medical follow-up quarantine played an important inhibitory effect on the outbreak of the epidemic.The centralized treatment played a key role in the rapid decline in the number of infected people. In addition, it is suggested that individuals should improve their prevention awareness and take strict self-protection measures to curb the increase in infected people. Conclusion: The modified SEIR model is reliable in the evaluation of COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei province, which provides a theoretical reference for the decision-making of epidemic interventions.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. All people including children are generally susceptible to COVID-19, but the condition is relatively mild for children. The diagnosis of COVID-19 is largely based on the epidemiological evidence and clinical manifestations, and confirmed by positive detection of virus nucleic acid in respiratory samples. The main symptoms of COVID-19 in children are fever and cough; the total number of white blood cell count is usually normal or decreased; the chest imaging is characterized by interstitial pneumonia, which is similar to other respiratory virus infections and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. Early identification, early isolation, early diagnosis and early treatment are important for clinical management. The treatment of mild or moderate type of child COVID-19 is mainly symptomatic. For severe and critical ill cases, the oxygen therapy, antiviral drugs, antibacterial drugs, glucocorticoids, mechanical ventilation or even extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be adopted, and the treatment plan should be adjusted timely through multi-disciplinary cooperation.
Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are important components of the tumor microenvironment. Through secreting of multiple growth factors, cytokines and proteases, CAFs play a significant role in regulating the recruitment and function of various innate immune cells and adaptive immune cells in tumor microenvironment. In addition, extracellular matrix secreted by CAFs can also promote the formation of immunosuppression and hypoxia of tumor microenvironment. Here, we review the progress on CAFs in regulation of immune cells and tumor immunity.
Severe and critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were usually with underlying diseases, which led to the problems of complicated drug use, potential drug-drug interactions and medication errors in special patients. Based on Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (trial version 6), and Management of COVID-19: the Zhejiang experience, we summarized the experience in the use of antiviral drugs, corticosteroids, vascular active drugs, antibacterial, probiotics, nutrition support schemes in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients. It is also suggested to focus on medication management for evaluation of drug efficacy and duration of treatment, prevention and treatment of adverse drug reactions, identification of potential drug-drug interactions, individualized medication monitoring based on biosafety protection, and medication administration for special patients.
Objective: To analyze the dynamic changes of chest CT images of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Fifty-two cases of COVID-19 were admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. The consecutive chest CT scans were followed up for all patients with an average of 4 scans performed per patient during the hospitalization. The shortest interval between each scan was 2 days and the longest was 7 days. The shape, number and distribution of lung shadows, as well as the characteristics of the lesions on the CT images were reviewed. Results: The obvious shadows infiltrating the lungs were shown on CT images in 50 cases, for other 2 cases there was no abnormal changes in the lungs during the first CT examination. Ground-glass opacities (GGO) were found in 48 cases (92.3%), and 19 cases (36.5%) had patchy consolidation and sub-consolidation, which were accompanied with air bronchi sign in 17 cases (32.7%). Forty one cases (78.8%) showed a thickened leaflet interval, 4 cases (7.6%) had a small number of fibrous stripes. During hospitalization, GGO lesions in COVID-19 patients gradually became rare, the fibrous strip shadows increased and it became the most common imaging manifestation. The lesions rapidly progressed in 39 cases (75.0%) within 6-9 days after admission. On days 10-14 of admission, the lesions distinctly resolved in 40 cases (76.9%). Conclusion: The chest CT images of patients with COVID-19 have certain characteristics with dynamic changes, which are of value for monitoring disease progress and clinical treatment.
Objective: To investigate the CT findings of patients with different clinical types of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A total of 67 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 by nucleic acid testing were collected and divided into 4 groups according to the clinical stages based on Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (trial version 6). The CT imaging characteristics were analyzed among patients with different clinical types. Results: Among 67 patients, 3(4.5%) were mild, 35 (52.2%) were moderate, 22 (32.8%) were severe, and 7(10.4%) were critical ill. No significant abnormality in chest CT imaging in mild patients. The 35 cases of moderate type included 3 (8.6%) single lesions, the 22 cases of severe cases included 1 (4.5%) single lesion and the rest cases were with multiple lesions. CT images of moderate patients were mainly manifested by solid plaque shadow and halo sign (18/35, 51.4%); while fibrous strip shadow with ground glass shadow was more frequent in severe cases (7/22, 31.8%). Consolidation shadow as the main lesion was observed in 7 cases, and all of them were severe or critical ill patients. Conclusion: CT images of patients with different clinical types of COVID-19 have characteristic manifestations, and solid shadow may predict severe and critical illness.
Objective: To compare the diagnostic efficacy among three RT-PCR test kits for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid detection. Methods: The throat swab samples from 40 hospitalized patients clinically diagnosed as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 16 hospitalized non-COVID-19 patients were recruited. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was detected in throat swab samples with RT-PCR test kits from Sansure Biotech ("Sansure" for short), Jiangsu Bioperfectus Technologies ("Bioperfectus" for short) and BGI Genomics ("BGI" for short). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and Kappa value were analyzed. The viral nucleic acid was extracted from the throat swab samples by one-step cleavage and magnetic bead methods, and the efficacy of two extraction methods was also compared. The results of magnetic bead method for nucleic acid extraction by two different extractors (Sansure Natch CS S12C Fully Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction System vs. Tianlong NP968-C Nucleic Acid Extractor) were also compared. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and kappa value were 95.00%, 87.50%, 95.00%, 87.50%and 0.825 for Sansure kit; 90.00%, 87.50%, 94.74%, 77.78%and 0.747 for the Bioperfectus kit, and 82.50%, 81.25%, 91.67%, 65.00%and 0.593 for the BGI kit, respectively. The positive, negative and total coincident rates and kappa value of viral nucleic acid detection results using the samples extracted by one-step cleavage and magnetic bead methods were 95.24%, 100.00%, 96.43%and 0.909, respectively, but the one-step cleavage method took only 25 min, while the magnetic bead method required 180 min. The positive, negative and total coincident rates and kappa value of viral nucleic acid detection results using the samples extracted by the two different nucleic acid extractors were 85.00%, 100.00%, 89.29% and 0.764, respectively. Conclusion: The detection efficacy for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by the Sansure kit is relatively higher and the one-step cleavage method has advantages of convenient operation and less time consuming.
Objective: To observe the clinical effect of plasma exchange and tocilizumab in treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Six patients with severe COVID-19 admitted in First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College from January 25 to February 25, 2020. Three patients were treated with plasma exchange and three patients were treated with tocilizumab. The effect on excessive inflammatory reaction of plasma exchange and tocilizumab was observed. Results: The C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased and the lymphocyte and prothrombin time were improved in 3 patients after treatment with plasma exchange; while inflammation level was not significantly decreased, and lymphocyte and prothrombin time did not improve in 3 patients treated with tocilizumab. Conclusion: For severe COVID-19 patients with strong inflammatory reaction, plasma exchange may be preferred.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a grade B infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In pace with the spreading of the disease, biosafety risk of the biological specimen preservation in biobanks has been significantly increased and biosafety protection during biological specimen preservation become increasingly important. According to the related national rules and the corresponding guidelines of Chinese Medical Association, this paper introduced the etiology about SARS-CoV-2, epidemiology about COVID-19, and the biosafety protection principles of individuals and biological specimen storage places in the process of personal protection, protection of collection, transport, handling, preservation, detection, post-detection disposal and emergencies of biological specimen. Emphasized to carry out a strict biosafety-risk assessment on biological specimen basing on virus load information, infectivity, and sample type (possible contact transmission, aerosol transmission, and fecal oral transmission).
Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects the cardio-pulmonary function of pregnant women, the anesthetic management and protection of medical staff in the cesarean section is significantly different from that in ordinary surgical operation. This paper reports a case of cesarean section for a woman with COVID-19, which was successfully performed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine on February 8, 2020. Anesthetic management, protection of medical staff and psychological intervention for the pregnant woman during the operation were discussed. Importance has been attached to the preoperative evaluation of pregnant women with COVID-19 and the implementation of anesthesia plan. For moderate patients, intraspinal anesthesia is preferred in cesarean section, and try to reduce its influence in respiration and circulation in both maternal and infant; general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation should be adopted for severe or critically ill patients. Ensure the safety of medical environment, and anesthetists should carry out level-Ⅲ standard protection. Special attention and support should be paid to maternal psychology: fully explanation before operation to reduce anxiety; relieve the discomfort during operation, so as to reduce tension; avoid the bad mood due to pain after operation.
In recent years, a large number of studies have achieved tumor targeting by mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)-based delivery system attributed to the tumor tropism of MSCs. Biomacromolecules and antineoplastic drugs loaded on MSC via internalization or cell membrane anchoring can be released or expressed at tumor site to perform their antitumor effects. The genetically modified MSC are extensively studied, however, the applications of MSCs in targeted delivery of antineoplastic drug with small molecules are not well summarized. In this review, MSCs homing mechanism and the distribution of injected MSCs in vivo is introduced; the examples of antitumor drug-primed MSCs and drug loaded MSCs are presented; the drug loading and releasing process from MSCs is also illustrated; finally, challenges and future perspectives of MSCs-based drug delivery system on realizing its full potential are prospected.
Objective: To screening coagulation and anticoagulation genes and mutations in Chinese patients with venous thromboembolism suspected of inhered thrombophilia. Methods: Patients with venous thromboembolism caused by inherited thrombophilia were collected from the second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine during June 2015 and December 2017. Gene sequencing was conducted to screen the anticoagulant-related genes PROC, PROS1, SERPINC1 and coagulation-related genes F5, F2, F8, CBS, MTHFR. The thousands of human genome database, ESP6500 database, Genoma database, HGMD mutation database were used to compare the mutation sites, and the pathogenic mutation sites were predicted according to SIFT, Polyphen, MutationTaster and CADD databases. Results: Among 25 patients screened, eight patients with PROC mutations, two patients with PROS1 mutations, three patients with SERPINC1 mutations; one patient with F5 mutation, one patient with F2 mutation, one patient with F8 mutation, two patient with CBS mutations, and one patient with MTHFR mutation. Conclusion: The second generation gene sequencing helps to diagnose inherited thrombophilia and guide the decision of anticoagulation duration.
Ion channels mediate ion transport across membranes, and play vital roles in processes of matter exchange, energy transfer and signal transduction in living organisms. Recently, structural studies of ion channels have greatly advanced our understanding of their ion selectivity and gating mechanisms. Structural studies of voltage-gated potassium channels elucidate the structural basis for potassium selectivity and voltage-gating mechanism; structural studies of voltage-gated sodium channels reveal their slow and fast inactivation mechanisms; and structural studies of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels provide complex and diverse structures of TRP channels, and their ligand gating mechanisms. In the article we summarize recent progress on ion channel structural biology, and outlook the prospect of ion channel structural biology in the future.
Objective: To investigate the rapid and accurate method for the detection of dengue virus (DENV) by using nicking enzyme assisted strand-displacement amplification (SDA) combined with gold nanoparticles-based lateral flow strip. Methods: Total RNA of the virus was extracted by using magnetic beads method and transcribed to cDNA for SDA detection system. Nicking enzyme-assisted method was used for detecting DENV, and agarose gel electrophoresis was used for analyzing the sensitivity of SDA amplification products. A gold nanoparticles-based lateral flow strip was developed based on the principle of nucleic acid base complementary pairing to design the test line and control line. The gold particles were prepared by using sodium citrate reduction method for gold nanoparticles-based lateral flow strip construction. Results: The sensitivity of the SDA method was 10 fmol/L, and the sensitivity of gold nanoparticles-based lateral flow strip based on SDA method was also 10 fmol/L. In a linear range from 10 fmol/L to 1012 fmol/L, the corresponding linear correlation coefficient (R2) of DENV was 0.98. The specificity of nanoparticles-based lateral flow strip based on SDA for DENV detection was high, which was no crossing with other control groups. Conclusion: A gold nanoparticles-based lateral flow strip based on SDA method for DENV detection has been established, which is convenient, fast, and the result is visible to naked eyes.
Objective: To investigate the effect of rapamycin on Parkinson's disease (PD) and its underlying mechanism in mice. Methods: Sixty SPF adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, model group and treatment group. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine(MPTP) was used to induce Parkinson's disease in model group and treatment group. All mice were trained to cross the runway and were subjected to computer-assisted CatWalk. The numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH+) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) were assessed by unbiased stereology using the optical fractionator method; protein expression was detected by Western blot analysis; and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by spectrophotometry. Results: In the model group, a decrease in stride rate and an increase in variation of stance and swing were noted by CatWalk system (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); the numbers of TH+ neurons decreased (P < 0.01); expression of p-Akt, p-S6K, p-S6 and p-ULK increased (all P < 0.01); LC3-Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio decreased (P < 0.01); MDA level was elevated while the levels of SOD and GSH-PX were reduced (all P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, after treated with rapamycin, the abnormal behavior including the stride length, variation of stance and swing and step patterns induced by MPTP were all improved (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); the numbers of TH+ neurons increased (P < 0.05); the expression of p-Akt, p-S6K, p-S6 and p-ULK was suppressed (all P < 0.01); the LC3-Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio was upregulated (P < 0.05); MDA level decreased while the levels of GSH-Px and SOD increased (all P < 0.01). Conclusion: Rapamycin inhibits the activation of mTOR pathway, which contributes to protect against the loss of dopaminergic neurons and provide behavioral improvements in mice with Parkinson's disease. These results are partially related to the ability of rapamycin in inducing autophagy and reducing oxidative stress.
Objective: To analyze the roles of multidisciplinary team (MDT) in the diagnosis and treatment of suspected cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: The clinical data of 48 patients with suspected COVID-19 admitted in Jinhua Municipal Central Hospital from January 21, 2020 to March 20, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In the 48 suspected cases, 18 were diagnosed with COVID-19, and 30 were excluded. Each of the confirmed cases were discussed among MDT for 2 to 12 times with an average of (4.7±3.2) times; while for non-COVID-19 patients were discussed for 2 to 4 times with an average of (2.3±0.6) times. With the guidance of MDT, one COVID-19 patient was transferred to designated provincial hospital after effective treatment; one patient complicated with acute cholecystitis underwent gallbladder puncture and drainage; and COVID-19 was excluded in a highly suspected patient after alveolar lavage fluid examination. Except one transferred patient, all 17 confirmed COVID-19 patients were cured and discharged. There was no cross-infection occurred in suspected patients during the hospitalization. There were no deaths and no medical staff infections. Conclusion: The efficiency of diagnosis and treatment for suspected COVID-19 patients can be improved with MDT, particularly for complicated cases.
Objective: To observe and verify the key anatomies of DeLancey's three levels of vaginal support theory through laparoscopic surgery by space dissection technique. Methods: The features and stress performance of related anatomies were observed and analyzed in laparoscopic type C hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for cervical cancer by natural space exposures. Results: The main ligament-like structure at level Ⅰ was the uterosacral ligament, which acted as the main apical fixation in the sacral direction, while the cardinal ligament was mainly composed of vascular system, lymph-vessels and loose connective tissue around them, lacking the tough connective tissue structures, which was connected to the internal iliac vascular system. There were no strong ligaments connected to the tendinous arch of pelvic fascia (ATFP) at the lateral side of vaginal wall at level Ⅱ. ATFP was the edge of the superior fascia of pelvic diaphragm, which was bounded by the fascia of the obturator. Its surface was smooth and close to the levator ani muscle and fuses with the vaginal fascia in about one thirds of middle lower segments of the vagina. When the ureter tunnel is separated, dense connective structures can be found in both anterior and posterior walls near the intersection of the ureter across uterine artery, fixing the bilateral angle of the bladder triangle, starting from the cervix and vagina and ending in the tunica muscularis vesicae urinariae. Conclusion: Based on the laparoscopic anatomy, the pelvic floor fascia ligament support above the levator ani muscle can be considered mainly around the vagina, and fascial ligament above the levator ani muscle can be simply considered as two parallel planes forming a "double hammock" structure, which may provide more anatomic data for pelvic floor reconstruction.
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of pregnant women complicated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: The clinical data of 3 pregnant women with COVID-19 admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 19 to February 10, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There was one case in the first-trimester pregnancy (case 1), one in the second-trimester pregnancy (case 2) and one in third-trimester pregnancy (case 3). Cough, fever, fatigue, lung imaging changes were the main manifestations. The white cell count, lymphocyte percentage had no significantly changes in case 1 and case 3, while the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), IL-6 and IL-10 elevated. The lymphocyte count and lymphocyte percentage decreased and the inflammatory indicators significantly increased in case 2. All patients were treated with antiviral, antitussive, oxygen inhalation; case 3 received glucocorticoids, case 2 with severe illness received glucocorticoids and additionally gamma globulin. All three cases were cured and discharged. Case 1 with early pregnancy chose to terminate pregnancy after discharge; case 2 chose to continue pregnancy without obstetric complications; and case 3 had cesarean section delivery due to abnormal fetal heart monitoring. Conclusion: The report shows that COVID-19 in pregnancy women could be cured with active treatment, and the maternal and fetal outcomes can be satisfactory.
Objective: To explore the risk factors of anxiety and depression in patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) so as to achieve early intervention and better clinical prognosis. Methods: Seventy-six patients with suspected COVID-19 in fever isolation wards of Second Hospital of Lanzhou University were enrolled From January 31, 2020 to February 22, 2020. Their clinical baseline data were collected. The anxiety of patients was assessed by Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the depression of patients was assessed by Hamilton Depression Scale. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the risk factors of anxiety and depression in these patients. Results: Female patients are more likely to have anxiety (OR=3.206, 95%CI:1.073-9.583, P < 0.05) and depression (OR=9.111, 95%CI:2.143-38.729, P < 0.01) than male patients; patients with known contact history of epidemic area and personnel in epidemic area are more likely to have depression (OR=3.267, 95%CI:1.082-9.597, P < 0.05). Conclusion: During the isolation treatment of suspected COVID-19 patients, early psychological intervention should be carried out for the female patients with known contact history of epidemic area and personnel in epidemic area, and drug treatment should be given in advance if necessary.
Objective: To investigate the clinical outcome of patients with moderate type of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after discharge by retesting viral nucleic acid. Methods: Seven patients with moderate COVID-19 met the discharge criteria enacted by National Health Commission were quarantined in hospital for 7 days, then continuously quarantined at home for 4 weeks after discharged. During the quarantined period, the symptoms and signs were documented, and sputum or nasal swab and feces samples were collected to test SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by RT-PCR method. Results: There was no symptoms and signs during the quarantine period in all 7 patients. However, respiratory swabs from 3 patients were confirmed positive of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid at 5 to 7 days after they met the discharge criteria. Conclusion: There is a relatively high incidence of positive viral nucleic acid in patients met the discharge criteria, and it is suggested that patients met the current discharge criteria should be quarantined in hospital for another 7 days and the follow-up viral testing is necessary.
Objective: To explore the expression, localization and regulatory effect on mitochondrial calcium signaling of Rictor in embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs). Methods: Classical embryonic stem cell cardiomyogenesis model was used for differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes. The location of Rictor in ESC-CMs was investigated by immunofluorescence and Western blot. The expression of Rictor in mouse embryonic stem cells was interfered with lentiviral technology, then the superposition of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in ESC-CMs was detected with immunofluorescence method; the cellular ultrastructure of ESC-CMs was observed by transmission electron microscope; the mitochondrial calcium transients of ESC-CMs was detected by living cell workstation; immunoprecipitation was used to detect the interaction between 1, 5, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3 receptor, IP3R), glucose-regulated protein 75 (Grp75) and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) in mitochondrial outer membrane; the expression of mitochondrial fusion protein (mitonusin-2, Mfn2) was detected by Western blot. Results: Rictor was mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM) in ESC-CMs. Immunofluorescence results showed that Rictor was highly overlapped with ER and mitochondria in ESC-CMs. After mitochondrial and ER were labeled with Mito-Tracker Red and ER-Tracker Green, it was demonstrated that the mitochondria of the myocardial cells in the Rictor group were scattered, and the superimposition rate of mitochondria and ER was lower than that of the negative control group (P < 0.01). The MAM structures were decreased in ESC-CMs after knockdown of Rictor. The results of the living cell workstation showed that the amplitude of mitochondrial calcium transients by ATP stimulation in ESC-CMs was decreased after knockdown of Rictor (P < 0.01). The results of co-immunoprecipitation showed that the interaction between IP3R, Grp75 and VDAC1 in the MAM structure of the cardiomyocytes in the Rictor group was significantly attenuated (P < 0.01); the results of Western blot showed that the expression of Mfn2 protein was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Using lentiviral technology to interfere Rictor expression in mouse embryonic stem cells, the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria in ESC-CMs decreases, which may be affected by reducing the interaction of IP3R, Grp75, VDAC1 and decreasing the expression of Mfn2, leading to the damage of MAM structure.
Cervical cancer is a complex disease caused by both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Inherited genomic variance, high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection/integration, genome methylation and somatic mutation could all constitute one machine learning model, laying the ground for molecular classification and the precision medicine of cervical cancer. Therefore, for cervical screening, next generation sequencing (NGS)-based HPV DNA and other molecular tests as well as dynamic machine learning models would accurately predict patients with potential to develop the cancer, thereby reducing the burden of repeated screening. Meantime, genome-editing tools targeting HPV would emerge as the next generation gene therapy for HPV-related cervical lesions. In this article, we review the substantial progress on molecular mechanism of cervical cancer development and suggest the future for precise prevention and early treatment of cervical cancer.
Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanisms of interleukin-35 (IL-35) in inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: BALB/c mice were divided into three groups with 10 mice in each group:control group, model group (oral administration of 4% glucan sodium sulfate for 7 d) and IL-35-treated group (oral administration of 4% glucan sodium sulfate for 7 d, intraperitoneal injection of 2 μg IL-35 at d2-5). Disease activity index (DAI) was scored every day. After 7 d, the mice were sacrificed, and the serum and intestinal tissue samples were collected. The gross morphology of the colon was observed; HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of colon tissue; flow cytometry was employed to detect the change of macrophage polarization ratio in colon tissue; the mRNA expression levels of cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10 and SHIP1 in colon tissue were determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR; the expression and distribution of SHIP1 in colon tissue was measured by immunohistochemistry; Western blotting was adopted to detect the expression level of SHIP1 protein in colonic intestinal tissues of each group. Results: The DAI scores of the mice in the model group were higher than those in the control group, while the DAI scores in the IL-35-treated group were lower than those in the model group (all P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the colon length was significantly shortened in the model group (P < 0.05), while the colon length of the IL-35-treated group had an increasing trend compared with the model group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Compared with the model group, microscopic inflammatory infiltration score was decreased and microscopic crypt destruction and score was significantly lower in IL-35-treated group (all P < 0.05). The relative expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ in the colon tissue of IL-35-treated group was decreased compared with the model group, while the relative expression of IL-10 mRNA was higher than that of the model group (all P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the proportion of M1 macrophages in the model group increased (P < 0.05), while the proportion of M1 macrophages in the IL-35-treated group was lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05). The relative expression of SHIP1 mRNA and protein in the colon tissue of IL-35-treated group was higher than that in the model group (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: IL-35 can inhibit the polarization of M1 macrophages and regulate inflammatory cytokines to promote anti-inflammatory effect on mice with colitis.
To explore the effects of intrauterine infection on early growth and neurobehavioral development in neonatal rats.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) was inoculated into uterine cervix of pregnant rats with gestation of 15 d to establish the intrauterine infection model, and the effect on the delivery of pregnant rats was observed. The neonatal rat brain tissue was stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and the cerebral white matter damage was assessed. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and neurofilament (NF) in pup brains. Birth weight and early growth development indices were monitored， and neurobehavioral tests were performed to access the change of neurobehavioral development in neonatal rats.
The white blood cell count increased significantly in the uterus and placenta of the pregnant rats after intrauterine E. coli infection and no significant impact was observed on the delivery of pregnant rats. Weak staining and focal rarefaction of cerebral white matter from rats at P7 in intrauterine infection group were observed. The expression of GFAP markedly increased (P＜0.05) in infection group, while the level of CNPase and NF in pup brains at P7 significantly decreased (P＜0.05 or P＜0.01). Compared with control group, the neonatal rats in infection group had lower birth weight and slower weight gain during the suckling period (P＜0.05 or P＜0.01), and the completion times of ear opening, eye opening, surface righting, negative geotaxis, acoustic startle and swimming test in infection group were significantly delayed (P＜0.05 or P＜0.01). Conclussion: Intrauterine infection in pregnant rats can induce cerebral white matter damage and retardation of early growth and neurobehavioral development in neonatal rats.
Narrative medicine first entered China in 2011 and has developed rapidly since then. The patient-centered care, shared decision making and relational medicine in the medical sphere, together with patients narrating their illness and narratology contributed to the rise of narrative medicine. Through listening to patients' narratives, paying attention to their emotions, and representing their stories in various ways, clinicians can connect with patients and empathize with them. In this way, affiliation and mutual trust with patients can be established. Patients will feel good in the doctor-patient encounter because of such humane care, and clinicians may get satisfaction from their work. Narrative medicine courses characterized by close reading of literature and writing should be added to the curriculum of medical education as the major content of medical humanities, so as to train narrative competence for the future doctors.
As a non-invasive approach, sonogenetics is applied to control neuronal activity. The mechanosensitive channel（MSC）, which has low threshold of responding to ultrasound, may be the alternative solution. Sonogenetics is the technique that activates the MSC expressed in targeted neurons by low intensity ultrasound, thus achieve the neuromodulation. In this review, we introduce the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, transient receptor potential, channels of the two-pore-domain potassium family, Piezo and the recent progress on their application in sonogenetics.
In addition to regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism to maintain strong bones, vitamin D also has immune regulating and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, it is related to chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. Many studies indicate the roles of vitamin D in the development and progression of endometriosis including the effects on modulation of immune responses, inflammation reactions, cell proliferation and apoptosis, angiogenesis, adhesion and invasion. Vitamin D supplementation can relieve pain and improve endometrial receptivity associated with endometriosis and play a preventive and therapeutic role. This paper summarizes the roles of vitamin D in endometriosis.
With China's implementing big data strategy, health care becomes one of the key areas in which the national big data strategy is highly promoted. However, as the health care big data industry grows rapidly, the security risk is increasingly prominent and the internet plus medical care makes the protection of health care big data more complicated. By analyzing the current situation of health care big data security protection, the article proposes the viewpoint of relative security and suggests the strategies and key issues of health care big data protection. From the aspects of legal supervision, talents cultivation, publicity and education, and key data protection, it is necessary to build the prevention and control system for health care big data security, so that the security risk can be reduced and the data utility can be maximized.
Objective: To analyze the efficacy of integrated minimally invasive surgery for iliac vein compression syndrome with varicose veins of lower extremities. Methods: From January 2017 to January 2018, 11 patients with iliac vein compression syndrome accompanied by varicose veins of lower extremities underwent left iliac vein stent implantation and radiofrequency thermal ablation of lower extremity veins in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. The left iliac vein stent was implanted through the puncture point approach of the main great saphenous vein, and then radiofrequency thermal ablation of the main saphenous vein was performed. Rivaroxaban and aspirin were administered from the day of surgery for 6 months and 12 months, respectively. After discharge, patients were followed up for more than 6 months. The lower extremity veins, iliac veins were reexamined by Doppler ultrasound or CT angiography at 2 weeks, 2 months and 6 months after surgery. Results: The operations were successfully performed in 11 patients, and no complication was observed during the operation. The rates of soreness and swelling remission, pigmentation and skin quality improvement, and the iliac vein stent patency were 100%. No varicose vein recurrence, iliofemoral vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were found. Conclusion: Integrated minimally invasive surgery is safe, effective and less invasive for iliac vein compression syndrome with varicose veins of lower extremities.
With the progress of medical technology, the development of new drugs and the improvement of the therapeutic effect of graft-versus host disease in the last two decades, the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) have been greatly improved. However, graft failure is still a rare but serious complication of allo-HSCT. HLA incompatibility, virus infection, elderly donor, uncontrolled primary disease, damage of bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment, ABO blood group incompatibility, T cell depletion, reduced intensity conditioning, and low nucleated cell number are all risk factors for graft failure. In recent years, with the implementation of HLA haplo-identical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the role of donor-specific antibodies in graft failure has attracted attention increasingly. This article reviews the recent studies involving the mechanism, risk factors and prevention measures of graft failure in allo-HSCT.
Objective: To investigate whether rapamycin treatment starting at 24 h after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) has protective effect on brain injury in rats. Methods: The rat I/R model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion according to Longa's method. A total of 104 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group, model group, and rapamycin-treated groups (6 h or 24 h after modeling). Neurological function was assessed with neurological severity score (NSS). Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) staining were used to examine the infarct volume and neuronal apoptosis, respectively. The expression of p-S6 protein in mTOR signaling pathway was detected by Western blot analysis. Results: Compared with sham group, NSS of the model group was significantly increased and TTC staining indicated obvious infarct area (all P < 0.01). Furthermore, significantly increased number of FJB-positive cells and p-S6 expression in the penumbra area were shown in the model group (all P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, both rapamycin-treated groups demonstrated decreased NSS, infarction volume and FJB positive cells as well as p-S6 expression in the penumbra area (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the groups of rapamycin administrated 6 h and 24 h after modeling (all P > 0.05). Conclusion: Rapamycin treatment starting at 24 h after I/R exhibits protective effect on brain injury in rats.
To develop methods of extraction and purification of C-terminal NUDT9 homology domain of human transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel.
After sonication and centrifuge of Escherichia coli strain Rosetta (DE3) which was induced by isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside, GST-NUDT9-H was collected after the binding of supernatant with GST beads and eluted with reduced glutathione. Then the elution buffer containing fusion protein was purified by size exclusion chromatography after concentration and centrifuge. Finally, with the cleavage of thrombin and binding with the GST beads, NUDT9-H with high purity in supernatant was collected.
The GST-NUDT9-H fusion protein was stabilized with lysis buffer containing 0.5% n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM), and wash buffer containing 0.025% DDM in size-exclusion chromatography system, and finally the NUDT9-H with high purity was obtained after cleaved by thrombin (1 U/2 mg fusion protein) for 24 h.
Due to the poor stability of NUDT9-H, it is necessary to add DDM in extraction and purification buffer to stabilize the conformation of NUDT9-H, so as to increase its yields and purity.
Objective: To investigate the effect of osthole on the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) cell model and its mechanism. Methods: The SH-SY5Y cell with over expression of APP was established by transfection by liposome 2000. The cells were treated with different concentrations of osthole, and the cell viability was determined by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The differentially expressed miRNAs with and without osthole treatment were detected by miRNA array, and the target genes binding to the differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and verified by databases and Cytoscape. After the inhibitor of the differentially expressed miRNA was transduced into cells, the changes of APP and amyloid β (Aβ) protein were determined by immunofluorescence cytochemistry, and the mRNA expression of APP was determined by RT-PCR. Results: The AD cell model with over expression of APP was established successfully. The results of MTT and LDH assay showed that osthole had a protective effect on cells and alleviated cell damage. miR-101a-3p was identified as the differentially expressed miRNA, which was binding to the 3'-UTR of APP. Compared with APP group, the expression of APP and Aβ protein and APP mRNA increased in the miR-101a-3p inhibitor group (all P < 0.01), while the expression of APP and Aβ protein and APP mRNA decreased in the cells with osthole treatment (all P < 0.01). Conclusion: Osthole inhibits the expression of APP by up-regulating miR-101a-3p in AD cell model.
Objective: To investigate the effect of curcumin on dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) and its mechanism. Methods: SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to establish the PD cell model. The model cells were treated with curcumin and/or autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. After 48 h of drug treatment, the number of surviving dopamine neurons was detected by tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence method. Western blotting was used to detect protein expression of α-Synuclein (α-Syn), transcription factor EB (TFEB) and autophagy-related proteins lysosome-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-Ⅱ(LC3-Ⅱ); RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of α-Syn. Results: Compared with MPTP model group, curcumin increased the number of surviving dopamine neurons(P < 0.01), decreased both protein expression and mRNA expression of α-Syn (all P < 0.01), and increased protein expression of TFEB, LAMP2A and LC3-Ⅱ (all P < 0.01). When curcumin and 3-MA were given concurrently, the number of surviving dopamine neurons, protein expression of TFEB, LAMP2A and LC3-Ⅱ increased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and both protein expression and mRNA expression of α-Syn decreased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) compared with MPTP model group; but the number of surviving dopamine neurons and protein expression of LAMP2A and LC3-Ⅱ decreased compared with curcumin group (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: Curcumin exerts protective effect on dopamine neurons in PD, which may be associated with enhancing autophagy and promoting the clearance of α-Syn.
The immune microenvironment plays an important role in the occurrence and development of breast cancer. The infiltrating immune cells and the produced inflammatory cytokines in the tumor microenvironment regulate the growth, proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer. In this article, the roles and related mechanisms of nonspecific immune microenvironment in breast cancer are summarized, focusing on the natural killer cells, dendritic cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells, tumor associated macrophages, interleukins, chemokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β and so on.
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest class of cell surface receptors, mediating wide range of cellular and physiological processes through their transducers, G proteins and the-arrestins participate in almost all pathological processes. Recent technological advances are revolutionizing the utility of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), leading to a tremendous progress in the structural studies of biological macromolecules and cryo-EM has played a leading role in the structural biology of GPCR signaling complex. New discoveries of high-resolution three-dimensional structures of GPCR signaling complexes based on cryo-EM have emerged vigorously, which depict the common structural characteristics of intermolecular interaction between GPCR and G protein complex-the conformational changes of the transmembrane helix 6 of receptors, and also demonstrate the structural basis of G protein subtype selectivity. Single-particle cryo-EM becomes an efficient tool for identifying the molecular mechanism of receptor-ligand interaction, providing important information for understanding GPCR signaling and the structure-based drug design.
Objective: To investigate the expression of leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor A3 (LILRA3) in CD14+ monocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Fifty three RA patients admitted in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine from February 2017 to August 2017, and 21 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. The expression of LILRA3 in CD14+ monocyte subset was determined by flow cytometry, and its correlations with clinical features, laboratory examination results, antibodies and disease activity were analyzed. Results: LILRA3 percentage in the CD14+ monocyte subset of RA patients was higher than that in the healthy controls (P < 0.01). The percentage of LILRA3 was positively correlated with number of tenderness joints, number of swollen joints and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.280, 0.371, 0.341, P < 0.05 or < 0.01), but was not correlated with the age, course of disease, Sharp score, C reactive protein, blood routine index and immunoglobulin (all P>0.05). In addition, the percentages of LILRA3 in the monocytes of rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody-positive patients were significantly higher than those of the RF-or anti-CCP antibody-negative patients (all P < 0.05); and the percentage of LILRA3 in patients with DAS28>5.1 was higher than that in patients with DAS28 ≤ 5.1 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The expression of LILRA3 is up-regulated in CD14+ monocyte subset isolated from RA patients, and it is correlated with disease activity.
Objective: To investigate the efficacy of brain-targeted rapamycin (T-Rap) in treatment of epilepsy in rats. Methods: Rapamycin nanoparticles targeting brain were prepared. The epilepsy model was induced by injection of pilocarpine in rats. The rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy were treated with rapamycin (Rap group) or brain-targeted rapamycin (T-Rap group). Seizure activity was observed by electroencephalography; the effect on mTOR signaling pathway was detected by Western blot; neuronal death and moss fiber sprouting were analyzed by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) and Timm's staining, respectively. Results: Electroencephalography showed that both preparation of rapamycin significantly reduced the frequency of spontaneous seizures in rats, and the effect of T-Rap was stronger than that of conventional rapamycin (P < 0.05). Western blot showed that the phosphorylation levels of S6K and S6 in T-Rap group were lower than those in Rap group (all P < 0.05), indicating that T-Rap had a stronger inhibitory effect on mTOR signaling pathway. FJB staining showed that T-Rap significantly decreased neuronal death, but there was no significant difference as compared with Rap group. Timm's staining showed that both preparations of rapamycin significantly reduced the germination of mossy fibers, while the effect of T-Rap was more pronounced than Rap group (P < 0.05). The inhibition of body weight gain of T-Rap group was less than that of Rap group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: T-Rap has a better therapeutic effect on epilepsy than conventional rapamycin with a less adverse effects in rats.
Objective: To investigate the effect of corticosteroids therapy on the inflammatory response in a critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient. Methods: A 55-year old female patient with critical ill COVID-19 was admitted in Taizhou Hospital on January 19, 2020. The patient was treated with methylprednisolone 80 mg on the 2nd day after admission. Thereafter, the dose was adjusted in a timely manner and the therapy lasted for 13 days. The peripheral lymphocyte subsets (CD3+T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, NK cells, B cells), as well as serum levels of lymphocyte factors (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) were dynamically monitored. Results: On D1 of admission, the numbers of peripheral blood CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells were significantly lower than the normal range. With the improvement of the disease, the numbers of CD3+ T, CD8+ T and CD4 + T cells gradually recovered and showed a linear growth trend (linear fitting equation: Y=18.59X+109.4, P < 0.05). On D2 of admission, the patient's IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher than normal values, IFN-γ was at a normal high value, and then rapidly decreased; IL-2, IL-4, and TNF-α were all in the normal range. On the D6 and D7, the IL-6 and IL-10 decreased to the normal range for the first time. On the D18, the sputum virus nucleic acid test was negative for the first time, and the fecal virus nucleic acid test was still positive; on the D20 the sputum and fecal virus nucleic acid test were both negative. On D34, the patient recovered and was discharged. At the discharge the muscle strength score of the patient was 44 and the daily life ability evaluation was 90. Conclusion: In the absence of effective antiviral drugs, early use of appropriate doses of corticosteroids in critically ill patient with COVID-19 can quickly alleviate inflammatory response and improve clinical symptoms, however, it may reduce the number of T cells, and to adjust the dose in time is necessary.
Studies have shown that chronic inflammatory response plays a key role in intracranial aneurysms (IA) formation and progression, and macrophages regulate the formation and progression of IA through a variety of pathways. Bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophages and resident-tissue macrophages infiltrate the vessel wall, after infiltration macrophages are polarized into various polarization phenotypes dominated by M1-like and M2-like cells. Polarized phenotypes of macrophages can regulate the formation and progression of intracranial aneurysms by releasing cytokines and regulating the inflammatory response of other immune cells, as well as release different cytokines to regulate the process of extracellular matrix remodeling. Some important progresses have been made in the clinical detection and treatment in targeting macrophages. This review provides a summary on the pathogenesis of IA and potential drug targets to prevent the formation and rupture of intracranial aneurysms.
A large number of studies have shown that the oxidative imbalance is common in patients with endometriosis. Abnormal respiratory chain of mitochondrial, estrogen metabolism imbalance, iron overload, and ectopic foci may increase active oxygen, reduction of antioxidant enzyme and non-enzymatic substances may result in decreased antioxidant level, and the exposure to environmental hazards may further aggravate oxidative imbalance in patients with endometriosis. This article analyzes the oxidative imbalance and its role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis from the aspects of excessive oxide production and decreased antioxidant capacity.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV), including HSV-1 and HSV-2, is an important pathogen that can cause many diseases. Usually these diseases are recurrent and incurable. After lytic infection on the surface of peripheral mucosa, HSV can enter sensory neurons and establish latent infection during which viral replication ceases. Moreover, latent virus can re-enter the replication cycle by reactivation and return to peripheral tissues to start recurrent infection. This ability to escape host immune surveillance during latent infection and to spread during reactivation is a viral survival strategy and the fundamental reason why no drug can completely eradicate the virus at present. Although there are many studies on latency and reactivation of HSV, and much progress has been made, many specific mechanisms of the process remain obscure or even controversial due to the complexity of this process and the limitations of research models. This paper reviews the major results of research on HSV latency and reactivation, and discusses future research directions in this field.
Objective: To establish a cell lines for quality control of prenatal genetic diagnosis. Methods: The recombined SV40LTag-pcDNA3.1(-) vector was constructed and transfected by lipidosome into human amniotic fluid cells with common aneuploidy. Positive clones were screened by G418, and the immortality of transfected cell line was identified. Results: Cell line with karyotype of 46, XY, t(8;19)(q24.3;q13.1) from primary amniotic fluid cells was established. Karyotype analytical results indicated that the cell line at its 15th generation maintained the same karyotype of its primary cell. Conclusion: Gene SV40LT can lead to immortality of amniotic fluid cells, which contributes to preparing cell lines for internal and external quality control in prenatal genetic diagnosis.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiorgan-involved autoimmune disease, and it can overlap organ-specific autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune thyroid diseases, autoimmune hepatitis and inflammatory bowel disease. There may be some association between SLE and these autoimmune diseases, such as common immunological and genetic basis, but the pathogenic mechanism is still unclear. This review focuses on current knowledge regarding the prevalence and possible pathogenesis of SLE overlapping the above three autoimmune diseases.
In recent years, surgical and non-surgical excision and drug therapy have replaced hysterectomy as the main therapeutic modalities for adenomyosis. It is suggested that the precise clinical diagnosis should be based on the reconstruction of digitized three-dimensional model with original image data of adenomyosis. Patients' age and clinical manifestations should also be considered, and the patients should be stratified according to reproductive requirements, so as to determine the best treatment. In view of the infiltration and diffuse growth of adenomyosis lesions in the myometrium of the uterus, it is suggested that long-term drug management should be adopted after surgical or non-surgical lesion resection.Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, dienogest and short-acting oral contraceptives should be recommended to consolidate the curative effect in order to delay the progress of the disease and prevent recurrence.
Objective: To investigate the effect of Shenmai injection on myocardial cells with oxidative injury and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) was used to induce the oxidative stress in H9c2 myocardial cells. The cell viability and ATP level were evaluated using MTT-colorimetric method and CellTiter-Glo luminescent cell viability assay. The oxygen respiration rate was examined by Clark oxygen electrode. Pyruvate and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) levels were evaluated by ELISA kit. Western blot and quantitative real-time RT-PCR were employed to evaluate the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha 1(PDHA1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK1). Results: Shenmai injection significantly improved viability and respiration of H9c2 myocardial cells after t-BHP injury (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). It increased ATP contents by consuming pyruvate and increasing PDH level (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Furthermore, Shenmai injection had the tendency to increase protein expression of PDHA1(P < 0.05) and decrease mRNA expression of PDK1 (P>0.05). Conclusion: Shenmai injection protects mitochondria from oxidative stress by increasing PDH level, which indicates that it may improve energy metabolism of myocardial cells.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a clinical hemodynamic syndrome characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right heart failure and death. Vascular remodeling is the most prominent histopathological feature of PAH, which is regulated by many factors. Endoplasmic reticulum stress, calcium disorder and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in the vascular cell proliferation and apoptosis by regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis and cellular metabolism. Epigenetic phenomenon such as DNA damage and abnormal expression of miRNA are also involved in the regulation of abnormal proliferation of vascular cells. Vascular cell phenotype switching including endothelial-mesenchymal transition and smooth muscle cell phenotype switching play an important role in abnormal proliferation of vascular cells. Vascular remodeling is produced by a variety of cells and molecular pathways, and aiming at multiple targets which is expected to find a new breakthrough in the treatment of PAH， and to improve abnormal vascular remodeling, delay or even reverse the progression of PAH.
Objective: To analyze the clinical features and prognosis of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC) and adenosquamous carcinoma of cervix (ASC). Methods: The clinical data of 237 patients, including 201 cases of AC and 36 cases of ASC (FIGO stage ⅠB1-ⅡA), who underwent surgery in Qilu Hospital between September 2007 and September 2016 were reviewed. Clinical features of two groups were compared, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to evaluate the prognosis. Results: A larger proportion of ASC patients had lymphovascular space invasion compared with AC patients (P < 0.01), but no significant differences were observed in the age, FIGO stage, size of tumor, depth of stromal invasion, parametrial invasion, lymphatic metastasis and risk grade between two groups (all P>0.05). The 5-year overall survival rates of AC and ASC groups were 79.4% and 78.3%, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 77.4% and 73.0%. Among patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy, the 5-year overall survival rates were 71.0% and 61.4%, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 68.8% abd 61.1%, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 5-year overall survival rates and recurrence-free survival rates between AC and ASC patients (all P>0.05). Conclusion: Lymphovascular space invasion was more likely to occur in patients with ASC, but there was no significant difference in the prognosis between AC and ASC patients.