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A pilot study of hydroxychloroquine in treatment of patients with moderate COVID-19
CHEN Jun,LIU Danping,LIU Li,LIU Ping,XU Qingnian,XIA Lu,LING Yun,HUANG Dan,SONG Shuli,ZHANG Dandan,QIAN Zhiping,LI Tao,SHEN Yinzhong,LU Hongzhou
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 215-219.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.03
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Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of patients with moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: We prospectively enrolled 30 treatment-naïve patients with confirmed COVID-19 after informed consent at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. The patients were randomized 1:1 to HCQ group and the control group. Patients in HCQ group were given HCQ 400 mg per day for 5 days plus conventional treatments, while those in the control group were given conventional treatment only. The primary endpoint was negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in respiratory pharyngeal swab on days 7 after randomization. This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and registered online (NCT04261517). Results: One patient in HCQ group developed to severe during the treatment. On day 7, nucleic acid of throat swabs was negative in 13 (86.7%) cases in the HCQ group and 14 (93.3%) cases in the control group (P>0.05). The median duration from hospitalization to virus nucleic acid negative conservation was 4 (1, 9) days in HCQ group, which is comparable to that in the control group [2 (1, 4) days, Z=1.27, P>0.05]. The median time for body temperature normalization in HCQ group was 1 (0, 2) day after hospitalization, which was also comparable to that in the control group [1 (0, 3) day]. Radiological progression was shown on CT images in 5 cases (33.3%) of the HCQ group and 7 cases (46.7%) of the control group, and all patients showed improvement in follow-up examinations. Four cases (26.7%) of the HCQ group and 3 cases (20%) of the control group had transient diarrhea and abnormal liver function (P>0.05). Conclusions: The prognosis of COVID-19 moderate patients is good. Larger sample size study are needed to investigate the effects of HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19. Subsequent research should determine better endpoint and fully consider the feasibility of experiments such as sample size.

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Management of COVID-19: the Zhejiang experience
XU Kaijin,CAI Hongliu,SHEN Yihong,NI Qin,CHEN Yu,HU Shaohua,LI Jianping,WANG Huafen,YU Liang,HUANG He,QIU Yunqing,WEI Guoqing,FANG Qiang,ZHOU Jianying,SHENG Jifang,LIANG Tingbo,LI Lanjuan
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 147-157.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.02.02
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The current epidemic situation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) still remained severe. As the National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine is the primary medical care center for COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Based on the present expert consensus carried out by National Health Commission and National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, our team summarized and established an effective treatment strategy centered on "Four-Anti and Two-Balance" for clinical practice. The "Four-Anti and Two-Balance" strategy included antivirus, anti-shock, anti-hyoxemia, anti-secondary infection, and maintaining of water, electrolyte and acid base balance and microecological balance. Meanwhile, integrated multidisciplinary personalized treatment was recommended to improve therapeutic effect. The importance of early viralogical detection, dynamic monitoring of inflammatory indexes and chest radiograph was emphasized in clinical decision-making. Sputum was observed with the highest positive rate of RT-PCR results. Viral nucleic acids could be detected in 10%patients' blood samples at acute period and 50%of patients had positive RT-PCR results in their feces. We also isolated alive viral strains from feces, indicating potential infectiousness of feces.Dynamic cytokine detection was necessary to timely identifying cytokine storms and application of artificial liver blood purification system. The "Four-Anti and Two-Balance" strategy effectively increased cure rate and reduced mortality. Early antiviral treatment could alleviate disease severity and prevent illness progression, and we found lopinavir/ritonavir combined with abidol showed antiviral effects in COVID-19. Shock and hypoxemia were usually caused by cytokine storms. The artificial liver blood purification system could rapidly remove inflammatory mediators and block cytokine storm.Moreover, it also favored the balance of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base and thus improved treatment efficacy in critical illness. For cases of severe illness, early and also short period of moderate glucocorticoid was supported. Patients with oxygenation index below 200 mmHg should be transferred to intensive medical center. Conservative oxygen therapy was preferred and noninvasive ventilation was not recommended. Patients with mechanical ventilation should be strictly supervised with cluster ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention strategies. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was not recommended except for patients with long course of disease, repeated fever and elevated procalcitonin (PCT), meanwhile secondary fungal infection should be concerned.Some patients with COVID-19 showed intestinal microbial dysbiosis with decreased probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, so nutritional and gastrointestinal function should be assessed for all patients.Nutritional support and application of prebiotics or probiotics were suggested to regulate the balance of intestinal microbiota and reduce the risk of secondary infection due to bacterial translocation. Anxiety and fear were common in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, we established dynamic assessment and warning for psychological crisis. We also integrated Chinese medicine in treatment to promote disease rehabilitation through classification methods of traditional Chinese medicine. We optimized nursing process for severe patients to promote their rehabilitation. It remained unclear about viral clearance pattern after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Therefore, two weeks' quarantine for discharged patients was required and a regular following up was also needed.The Zhejiang experience and suggestions have been implemented in our center and achieved good results. However, since COVID-19 was a newly emerging disease, more work was warranted to improve strategies of prevention, diagnosis and treatment for COVID-19.

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Study on the epidemic development of COVID-19 in Hubei province by a modified SEIR model
CAO Shengli,FENG Peihua,SHI Pengpeng
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 178-184.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.02.05
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Objective: To establish a SEIR epidemic dynamics model that can be used to evaluate the COVID-19 epidemic, and to predict and evaluate the COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei province using the proposed model. Methods: COVID-19 SEIR transmission dynamics model was established, which took transmission ability in latent period and tracking quarantine interventions into consideration. Based on the epidemic data of Hubei province from January 23, 2020 to February 24, 2020, the parameters of the newly established modified SEIR model were fitted. By using Euler integral algorithm to solve the modified SEIR dynamics model, the epidemic situation in Hubei province was analyzed, and the impact of prevention and control measures such as quarantine and centralized treatment on the epidemic development was discussed. Results: The theoretical estimation of the epidemic situation by the modified SEIR epidemic dynamics model is in good agreement with the actual situation in Hubei province. Theoretical analysis showed that prevention and control quarantine and medical follow-up quarantine played an important inhibitory effect on the outbreak of the epidemic.The centralized treatment played a key role in the rapid decline in the number of infected people. In addition, it is suggested that individuals should improve their prevention awareness and take strict self-protection measures to curb the increase in infected people. Conclusion: The modified SEIR model is reliable in the evaluation of COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei province, which provides a theoretical reference for the decision-making of epidemic interventions.

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Diagnosis and treatment recommendation for pediatric COVID-19 (the second edition)
CHEN Zhimin,FU Junfen,SHU Qiang,WANG Wei,CHEN Yinghu,HUA Chunzhen,LI Fubang,LIN Ru,TANG Lanfang,WANG Tianlin,WANG Yingshuo,XU Weize,YANG Zihao,YE Sheng,YUAN Tianming,ZHANG Chenmei,ZHANG Yuanyuan
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 139-146.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.02.01
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. All people including children are generally susceptible to COVID-19, but the condition is relatively mild for children. The diagnosis of COVID-19 is largely based on the epidemiological evidence and clinical manifestations, and confirmed by positive detection of virus nucleic acid in respiratory samples. The main symptoms of COVID-19 in children are fever and cough; the total number of white blood cell count is usually normal or decreased; the chest imaging is characterized by interstitial pneumonia, which is similar to other respiratory virus infections and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. Early identification, early isolation, early diagnosis and early treatment are important for clinical management. The treatment of mild or moderate type of child COVID-19 is mainly symptomatic. For severe and critical ill cases, the oxygen therapy, antiviral drugs, antibacterial drugs, glucocorticoids, mechanical ventilation or even extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be adopted, and the treatment plan should be adjusted timely through multi-disciplinary cooperation.

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Pharmaceutical care for severe and critically ill patients with COVID-19
JIANG Saiping,LI Lu,RU Renping,ZHANG Chunhong,RAO Yuefeng,LIN Bin,WANG Rongrong,CHEN Na,WANG Xiaojuan,CAI Hongliu,SHENG Jifang,ZHOU Jianying,LU Xiaoyang,QIU Yunqing
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 158-169.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.01
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Severe and critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were usually with underlying diseases, which led to the problems of complicated drug use, potential drug-drug interactions and medication errors in special patients. Based on Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (trial version 6), and Management of COVID-19: the Zhejiang experience, we summarized the experience in the use of antiviral drugs, corticosteroids, vascular active drugs, antibacterial, probiotics, nutrition support schemes in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients. It is also suggested to focus on medication management for evaluation of drug efficacy and duration of treatment, prevention and treatment of adverse drug reactions, identification of potential drug-drug interactions, individualized medication monitoring based on biosafety protection, and medication administration for special patients.

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Dynamic changes of chest CT imaging in patients with COVID-19
WANG Jincheng,LIU Jinpeng,WANG Yuanyuan,LIU Wei,CHEN Xiaoqun,SUN Chao,SHEN Xiaoyong,WANG Qidong,WU Yaping,LIANG Wenjie,RUAN Lingxiang
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 191-197.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.02.03
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Objective: To analyze the dynamic changes of chest CT images of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Fifty-two cases of COVID-19 were admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. The consecutive chest CT scans were followed up for all patients with an average of 4 scans performed per patient during the hospitalization. The shortest interval between each scan was 2 days and the longest was 7 days. The shape, number and distribution of lung shadows, as well as the characteristics of the lesions on the CT images were reviewed. Results: The obvious shadows infiltrating the lungs were shown on CT images in 50 cases, for other 2 cases there was no abnormal changes in the lungs during the first CT examination. Ground-glass opacities (GGO) were found in 48 cases (92.3%), and 19 cases (36.5%) had patchy consolidation and sub-consolidation, which were accompanied with air bronchi sign in 17 cases (32.7%). Forty one cases (78.8%) showed a thickened leaflet interval, 4 cases (7.6%) had a small number of fibrous stripes. During hospitalization, GGO lesions in COVID-19 patients gradually became rare, the fibrous strip shadows increased and it became the most common imaging manifestation. The lesions rapidly progressed in 39 cases (75.0%) within 6-9 days after admission. On days 10-14 of admission, the lesions distinctly resolved in 40 cases (76.9%). Conclusion: The chest CT images of patients with COVID-19 have certain characteristics with dynamic changes, which are of value for monitoring disease progress and clinical treatment.

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CT imaging features of patients with different clinical types of COVID-19
ZHONG Qi,LI Zhi,SHEN Xiaoyong,XU Kaijin,SHEN Yihong,FANG Qiang,CHEN Feng,LIANG Tingbo
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 198-202.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.05
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Objective: To investigate the CT findings of patients with different clinical types of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A total of 67 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 by nucleic acid testing were collected and divided into 4 groups according to the clinical stages based on Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (trial version 6). The CT imaging characteristics were analyzed among patients with different clinical types. Results: Among 67 patients, 3(4.5%) were mild, 35 (52.2%) were moderate, 22 (32.8%) were severe, and 7(10.4%) were critical ill. No significant abnormality in chest CT imaging in mild patients. The 35 cases of moderate type included 3 (8.6%) single lesions, the 22 cases of severe cases included 1 (4.5%) single lesion and the rest cases were with multiple lesions. CT images of moderate patients were mainly manifested by solid plaque shadow and halo sign (18/35, 51.4%); while fibrous strip shadow with ground glass shadow was more frequent in severe cases (7/22, 31.8%). Consolidation shadow as the main lesion was observed in 7 cases, and all of them were severe or critical ill patients. Conclusion: CT images of patients with different clinical types of COVID-19 have characteristic manifestations, and solid shadow may predict severe and critical illness.

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Diagnostic efficacy of three test kits for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection
SHEN Lihua,HUANG Fei,CHEN Xiang,XIONG Zuan,YANG Xiaoyu,LI Hui,CHENG Feng,GUO Jian,GONG Guofu
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 185-190.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.09
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Objective: To compare the diagnostic efficacy among three RT-PCR test kits for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid detection. Methods: The throat swab samples from 40 hospitalized patients clinically diagnosed as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 16 hospitalized non-COVID-19 patients were recruited. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was detected in throat swab samples with RT-PCR test kits from Sansure Biotech ("Sansure" for short), Jiangsu Bioperfectus Technologies ("Bioperfectus" for short) and BGI Genomics ("BGI" for short). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and Kappa value were analyzed. The viral nucleic acid was extracted from the throat swab samples by one-step cleavage and magnetic bead methods, and the efficacy of two extraction methods was also compared. The results of magnetic bead method for nucleic acid extraction by two different extractors (Sansure Natch CS S12C Fully Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction System vs. Tianlong NP968-C Nucleic Acid Extractor) were also compared. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and kappa value were 95.00%, 87.50%, 95.00%, 87.50%and 0.825 for Sansure kit; 90.00%, 87.50%, 94.74%, 77.78%and 0.747 for the Bioperfectus kit, and 82.50%, 81.25%, 91.67%, 65.00%and 0.593 for the BGI kit, respectively. The positive, negative and total coincident rates and kappa value of viral nucleic acid detection results using the samples extracted by one-step cleavage and magnetic bead methods were 95.24%, 100.00%, 96.43%and 0.909, respectively, but the one-step cleavage method took only 25 min, while the magnetic bead method required 180 min. The positive, negative and total coincident rates and kappa value of viral nucleic acid detection results using the samples extracted by the two different nucleic acid extractors were 85.00%, 100.00%, 89.29% and 0.764, respectively. Conclusion: The detection efficacy for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by the Sansure kit is relatively higher and the one-step cleavage method has advantages of convenient operation and less time consuming.

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Principles and suggestions on biosafety protection of biological specimen preservation during prevalence of COVID-19
ZHANG Xiaoyan, SUN Wei, SHANG Shiqiang, MAO Jianhua, FU Junfen, SHU Qiang, JIANG Kewen
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 170-177.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.02.04
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a grade B infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In pace with the spreading of the disease, biosafety risk of the biological specimen preservation in biobanks has been significantly increased and biosafety protection during biological specimen preservation become increasingly important. According to the related national rules and the corresponding guidelines of Chinese Medical Association, this paper introduced the etiology about SARS-CoV-2, epidemiology about COVID-19, and the biosafety protection principles of individuals and biological specimen storage places in the process of personal protection, protection of collection, transport, handling, preservation, detection, post-detection disposal and emergencies of biological specimen. Emphasized to carry out a strict biosafety-risk assessment on biological specimen basing on virus load information, infectivity, and sample type (possible contact transmission, aerosol transmission, and fecal oral transmission).

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Anesthesia management in cesarean section for patient with COVID-19: a case report
KANG Xianhui,ZHANG Rong,HE Huiliang,YAO Yongxing,ZHENG Yueying,WEN Xiaohong,ZHU Shengmei
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 249-252.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.04
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Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects the cardio-pulmonary function of pregnant women, the anesthetic management and protection of medical staff in the cesarean section is significantly different from that in ordinary surgical operation. This paper reports a case of cesarean section for a woman with COVID-19, which was successfully performed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine on February 8, 2020. Anesthetic management, protection of medical staff and psychological intervention for the pregnant woman during the operation were discussed. Importance has been attached to the preoperative evaluation of pregnant women with COVID-19 and the implementation of anesthesia plan. For moderate patients, intraspinal anesthesia is preferred in cesarean section, and try to reduce its influence in respiration and circulation in both maternal and infant; general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation should be adopted for severe or critically ill patients. Ensure the safety of medical environment, and anesthetists should carry out level-Ⅲ standard protection. Special attention and support should be paid to maternal psychology: fully explanation before operation to reduce anxiety; relieve the discomfort during operation, so as to reduce tension; avoid the bad mood due to pain after operation.

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Clinical observation of 6 severe COVID-19 patients treated with plasma exchange or tocilizumab
LUO Song,YANG Lijuan,WANG Chun,LIU Chuanmiao,LI Dianming
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 227-231.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.06
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Objective: To observe the clinical effect of plasma exchange and tocilizumab in treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Six patients with severe COVID-19 admitted in First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College from January 25 to February 25, 2020. Three patients were treated with plasma exchange and three patients were treated with tocilizumab. The effect on excessive inflammatory reaction of plasma exchange and tocilizumab was observed. Results: The C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased and the lymphocyte and prothrombin time were improved in 3 patients after treatment with plasma exchange; while inflammation level was not significantly decreased, and lymphocyte and prothrombin time did not improve in 3 patients treated with tocilizumab. Conclusion: For severe COVID-19 patients with strong inflammatory reaction, plasma exchange may be preferred.

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Roles of multidisciplinary team in diagnosis and treatment of suspected cases of COVID-19
DING Shubo,YU Shi'an,CHEN Haijun,ZHANG Dehe,XU Yejin,ZHU Dan,CHENG Kun
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 209-214.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.15
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Objective: To analyze the roles of multidisciplinary team (MDT) in the diagnosis and treatment of suspected cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: The clinical data of 48 patients with suspected COVID-19 admitted in Jinhua Municipal Central Hospital from January 21, 2020 to March 20, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In the 48 suspected cases, 18 were diagnosed with COVID-19, and 30 were excluded. Each of the confirmed cases were discussed among MDT for 2 to 12 times with an average of (4.7±3.2) times; while for non-COVID-19 patients were discussed for 2 to 4 times with an average of (2.3±0.6) times. With the guidance of MDT, one COVID-19 patient was transferred to designated provincial hospital after effective treatment; one patient complicated with acute cholecystitis underwent gallbladder puncture and drainage; and COVID-19 was excluded in a highly suspected patient after alveolar lavage fluid examination. Except one transferred patient, all 17 confirmed COVID-19 patients were cured and discharged. There was no cross-infection occurred in suspected patients during the hospitalization. There were no deaths and no medical staff infections. Conclusion: The efficiency of diagnosis and treatment for suspected COVID-19 patients can be improved with MDT, particularly for complicated cases.

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Clinical analysis of suspected COVID-19 patients with anxiety and depression
LI Xin,DAI Tian,WANG Hong,SHI Junnian,YUAN Wei,LI Jing,CHEN Lijun,ZHANG Tianming,ZHANG Shanshan,KONG Yan,YUE Ning,SHI Hui,HE Yuping,HU Huifang,LIU Furong,YANG Caixia
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 203-208.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.02
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Objective: To explore the risk factors of anxiety and depression in patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) so as to achieve early intervention and better clinical prognosis. Methods: Seventy-six patients with suspected COVID-19 in fever isolation wards of Second Hospital of Lanzhou University were enrolled From January 31, 2020 to February 22, 2020. Their clinical baseline data were collected. The anxiety of patients was assessed by Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the depression of patients was assessed by Hamilton Depression Scale. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the risk factors of anxiety and depression in these patients. Results: Female patients are more likely to have anxiety (OR=3.206, 95%CI:1.073-9.583, P < 0.05) and depression (OR=9.111, 95%CI:2.143-38.729, P < 0.01) than male patients; patients with known contact history of epidemic area and personnel in epidemic area are more likely to have depression (OR=3.267, 95%CI:1.082-9.597, P < 0.05). Conclusion: During the isolation treatment of suspected COVID-19 patients, early psychological intervention should be carried out for the female patients with known contact history of epidemic area and personnel in epidemic area, and drug treatment should be given in advance if necessary.

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Pregnant women complicated with COVID-19: a clinical analysis of 3 cases
CHEN Xu,LI Yang,WANG Jinxi,CAI Hongliu,CAO Hongcui,SHENG Jifang
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 240-244.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.08
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Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of pregnant women complicated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: The clinical data of 3 pregnant women with COVID-19 admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 19 to February 10, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There was one case in the first-trimester pregnancy (case 1), one in the second-trimester pregnancy (case 2) and one in third-trimester pregnancy (case 3). Cough, fever, fatigue, lung imaging changes were the main manifestations. The white cell count, lymphocyte percentage had no significantly changes in case 1 and case 3, while the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), IL-6 and IL-10 elevated. The lymphocyte count and lymphocyte percentage decreased and the inflammatory indicators significantly increased in case 2. All patients were treated with antiviral, antitussive, oxygen inhalation; case 3 received glucocorticoids, case 2 with severe illness received glucocorticoids and additionally gamma globulin. All three cases were cured and discharged. Case 1 with early pregnancy chose to terminate pregnancy after discharge; case 2 chose to continue pregnancy without obstetric complications; and case 3 had cesarean section delivery due to abnormal fetal heart monitoring. Conclusion: The report shows that COVID-19 in pregnancy women could be cured with active treatment, and the maternal and fetal outcomes can be satisfactory.

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Follow-up testing of viral nucleic acid in discharged patients with moderate type of COVID-19
LI Youjiang,HU Yingying,ZHANG Xiaodong,YU Yuanyuan,LI Bin,WU Jianguo,WU Yingping,XIA Xiaoping,XU Jian
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 270-274.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.11
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Objective: To investigate the clinical outcome of patients with moderate type of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after discharge by retesting viral nucleic acid. Methods: Seven patients with moderate COVID-19 met the discharge criteria enacted by National Health Commission were quarantined in hospital for 7 days, then continuously quarantined at home for 4 weeks after discharged. During the quarantined period, the symptoms and signs were documented, and sputum or nasal swab and feces samples were collected to test SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by RT-PCR method. Results: There was no symptoms and signs during the quarantine period in all 7 patients. However, respiratory swabs from 3 patients were confirmed positive of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid at 5 to 7 days after they met the discharge criteria. Conclusion: There is a relatively high incidence of positive viral nucleic acid in patients met the discharge criteria, and it is suggested that patients met the current discharge criteria should be quarantined in hospital for another 7 days and the follow-up viral testing is necessary.

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What is narrative medicine?
GUO Liping
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (5): 467-473.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.10.01
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Narrative medicine first entered China in 2011 and has developed rapidly since then. The patient-centered care, shared decision making and relational medicine in the medical sphere, together with patients narrating their illness and narratology contributed to the rise of narrative medicine. Through listening to patients' narratives, paying attention to their emotions, and representing their stories in various ways, clinicians can connect with patients and empathize with them. In this way, affiliation and mutual trust with patients can be established. Patients will feel good in the doctor-patient encounter because of such humane care, and clinicians may get satisfaction from their work. Narrative medicine courses characterized by close reading of literature and writing should be added to the curriculum of medical education as the major content of medical humanities, so as to train narrative competence for the future doctors.

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Dynamic inflammatory response in a critically ill COVID-19 patient treated with corticosteroids
ZHAGN Sheng,LI Danping,CHEN Huazhong,ZHENG Dan,ZHOU Yiping,CHEN Baoguo,SHI Weiwu,LIN Ronghai
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 220-226.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.10
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Objective: To investigate the effect of corticosteroids therapy on the inflammatory response in a critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient. Methods: A 55-year old female patient with critical ill COVID-19 was admitted in Taizhou Hospital on January 19, 2020. The patient was treated with methylprednisolone 80 mg on the 2nd day after admission. Thereafter, the dose was adjusted in a timely manner and the therapy lasted for 13 days. The peripheral lymphocyte subsets (CD3+T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, NK cells, B cells), as well as serum levels of lymphocyte factors (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) were dynamically monitored. Results: On D1 of admission, the numbers of peripheral blood CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells were significantly lower than the normal range. With the improvement of the disease, the numbers of CD3+ T, CD8+ T and CD4 + T cells gradually recovered and showed a linear growth trend (linear fitting equation: Y=18.59X+109.4, P < 0.05). On D2 of admission, the patient's IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher than normal values, IFN-γ was at a normal high value, and then rapidly decreased; IL-2, IL-4, and TNF-α were all in the normal range. On the D6 and D7, the IL-6 and IL-10 decreased to the normal range for the first time. On the D18, the sputum virus nucleic acid test was negative for the first time, and the fecal virus nucleic acid test was still positive; on the D20 the sputum and fecal virus nucleic acid test were both negative. On D34, the patient recovered and was discharged. At the discharge the muscle strength score of the patient was 44 and the daily life ability evaluation was 90. Conclusion: In the absence of effective antiviral drugs, early use of appropriate doses of corticosteroids in critically ill patient with COVID-19 can quickly alleviate inflammatory response and improve clinical symptoms, however, it may reduce the number of T cells, and to adjust the dose in time is necessary.

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Advances in newborn screening and immune system reconstitution of severe combined immunodeficiency
HUANG Shumin,ZHAO Zhengyan
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 351-357.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.01
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Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is a group of rare congenital diseases characterized by severe deficiencies in T lymphocyte counts and/or function. The recurrent, persistent and severe infections are its clinical manifestations. Neonatal screening and immune system reconstruction would improve the prognosis of SCID children. Newborn screening programs based on T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) quantitative detection have been carried out in clinical practice, however, the methods still have some limitations. Other new methods such as mass spectrometry and T lymphocyte-specific biomarker assays are still under investigation. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy are the two main methods for reconstructing immune function in SCID children. Through improving the success rate of transplantation and the long-term safety and stability of viral vectors, some achievements have been made by many centers already. However, large-scale prospective studies are needed for evaluation of the long-term efficacy. In this article, the recent progress in newborn screening and immune reconstitution of SCID is reviewed.

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Research progress on selective immunoproteasome inhibitors
KONG Limin,LU Jingyi,ZHU Huajian,ZHANG Jiankang
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (6): 688-694.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.12.15
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Immunoproteasome is associated with various diseases such as hematologic malignancies, inflammatory, autoimmune and central nervous system diseases, and over expression of immunoproteasome is observed in all of these diseases. Immunoproteasome inhibitors can reduce the expression of immunoproteasome by inhibiting the production of related cell-inducing factors and the activity of T lymphocyte for treating related diseases. In order to achieve good efficacy and reduce the toxic effects, key for development of selective immunoproteasome inhibitors is the high selectivity and potent activity of the three active subunits of the proteasome. This review summarizes the structure and functions of immunoproteasome and the associated diseases. Besides, structure, activity and status of selective immunoproteasome inhibitors are also been highlighted.

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Establishment of a rapid identification of adverse drug reaction program in R language implementation based on monitoring data
HONG Dongsheng,NI Jian,SHAN Wenya,LI Lu,HU Xi,YANG Hongyu,ZHAO Qingwei,ZHANG Xingguo
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 253-259.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.07
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Objective: To establish a clinically applicable model of rapid identification of adverse drug reaction program (RiADP) for risk management and decision-making of clinical drug use. Methods: Based on the theory of disproportion analysis, frequency method and Bayes method, a clinically applicable RiADP model in R language background was established, and the parameters of the model were interpreted by MedDRA coding. Based on the actual monitoring data of FDA, the model was validated by the assessing hepatotoxicity of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). Results: The established RiADP model included four parameters: standard value of adverse drug reaction signal information, empirical Bayesian geometric mean value, ratio of reporting ratio and number of adverse drug reaction cases. Through the application of R language parameter package "phViD", the model parameters could be output quickly. After being encoded by MedDRA, it was converted into clinical terms to form a clinical interpretation report of adverse drug reactions. In addition, the evaluation results of LPV/r hepatotoxicity by the model were matched with the results reported in latest literature, which also proved the reliability of the model results. Conclusion: In this study, a rapid identification method of adverse reactions based on post marketing drug monitoring data was established in R language environment, which is capable of sending rapid warning of adverse reactions of target drugs in public health emergencies, and providing intuitive evidence for risk management and decision-making of clinical drugs.

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Management of a colon cancer patient complicated with COVID-19
YE Ziqi,HONG Yun,WU Xiuhua,HONG Dongsheng,ZHANG Yanfang,DONG Xihao,RAO Yuefeng,LU Xiaoyang
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 245-248.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.12
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Objective: To explore the feasibility of radical resection for cancer patients complicated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: The management and clinical outcome of a sigmoid cancer patient with COVID-19 were analyzed. Results: The inflammation indicators and fever of this patient were effectively controlled and the lung lesions remained stable after active anti-viral treatment, then the radical colorectomy was performed after the viral negative conversion for twice. Conclusion: The case indicates that radical resection can be performed in SARS-CoV-2 patients with twice-negative SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing results.

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Identification of dynamic co-expression networks in peripheral blood of rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion
PAN Zongfu,HU Xiaoping,ZHANG Yiwen,LI Li,HUANG Ping
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (6): 587-593.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.12.01
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Objective: To identify the time dependent profiles of gene expression and featured co-expression network modules in peripheral blood of rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Methods: Microarray GSE119121 from GEO database was analyzed by R language to identify the significantly changed genes in peripheral blood at different time points (0, 1, 2, 3, 6 and 24 h) after MCAO. Gene expression patterns at different time courses were screened by STEM tools. Then, function annotation and pathway enrichment of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were performed using the Gene Ontology (GO) database and the Kyoto Gene and Genomic Encyclopedia (KEGG) database. Depending on CEMiTool package, gene expression profile matrix was inputted into R to construct the co-expression networks and to analyze modules, and enrichment analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between the modules and different time points. Results: Comparing with gene at 0 h, the numbers of DEGs in peripheral blood at different time points after MCAO were 163 (1 h), 502 (2 h), 527 (3 h), 550 (6 h), and 75 (24 h), respectively. Moreover, a total of 38 gene expression patterns were enriched, and pattern 65 and pattern 34 were specifically up-regulated or down-regulated at 2-6 h. Hp, Nos2, P2ry10, and Klf12 were representative genes of these two models. The co-expression network module analysis showed that the gene status in the early acute phase (1-6 h) was positively correlated with the Module 2. Module 3 and Module 4 was positively correlated with phase phase 1-3 h and 2-6 h, respectively. Noteworthy, Module 6 gradually changed from positive correlation (0-2 h) to negative correlation (3-24 h) with the MCAO time course, and Module 6 was mainly related to viral response and innate immune response. The hub genes of Module 6 included Mx1, Mx2, and Rtp4. Conclusion: Our study has identified the featured genes and dynamic co-expression network modules in peripheral blood after acute ischemic stroke, which provides a potential basis for judging the onset time of ischemic stroke.

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Replication and transmission mechanisms of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses
HE Yeyan, ZHENG Chanying
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.16
Genetic analysis of newborns with abnormal metabolism of 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine
WU Dingwen,LU Bin,YANG Jianbin,YANG Rulai,HUANG Xinwen,TONG Fan,ZHENG Jing,ZHAO Zhengyan
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 390-396.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.07
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Objective: To investigate the genetic characterization of 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5-OH) metabolic abnormality in neonates. Methods: Fifty two newborns with increased C5-OH, C5-OH/C3 and C5-OH/C8 detected by tandem mass spectrometry during neonatal screening were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole blood samples of 52 cases and their parents. Seventy-nine genes associated with genetic and metabolic diseases including MCCC1, MCCC2 were targeted by liquid capture technique. Variation information of these genes was examined by high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, and then was classified based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) standards and guidelines. The genetic types were classified as wild-type, MCCC1-maternal-mutation, MCCC1-paternal-mutation and MCCC2-mutation. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was performed for the increased multiples of C5-OH calculated in neonatal screening. Results: Twenty one MCCC1 variants (14 novel) were identified in 37 cases, 6 MCCC2 variants (5 novel) in 4 cases. The increased multiple of C5-OH calculated in MCCC1-maternal-mutation and MCCC2-mutation groups were significantly higher than that in wild-type group (all P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference between MCCC1-paternal-mutation group and wild-type group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Mutations on MCCC1 and MCCC2 genes are the major genetic causes for the increased C5-OH in neonates, and maternal single heterozygous mutation can contribute to the moderately to severely increased C5-OH.

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Ultrasound diagnosis of left inferior vena cava and double inferior vena cava in fetus
ZHANG Ziwei,WANG Junmei
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 446-452.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.16
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Objective: To evaluate the application of ultrasonography in prenatal diagnosis of left inferior vena cava and double inferior vena cava in fetus. Methods: The clinical data and ultrasonographic findings of the fetuses with left inferior vena cava (18 cases) or double inferior vena cava (16 cases) were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The ultrasonographic images of left inferior vena cava showed that in the transverse view of the fetal upper abdomen the inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta were in the normal position; below the level of the hilum, the inferior vena cava was located behind the left side of the abdominal aorta; at the level of the hilum, it crossed the front of the abdominal aorta and run diagonally to the upper right, forming the right inferior vena cava and finally entered into the right atrium. The ultrasonographic images of double inferior vena cava showed that in the transverse view of the fetal lower abdomen, in front of spine there were three transections of blood vessels; in coronal plane of abdomen, the veins run on both sides of the abdominal aorta and entered to the iliac vein of the same side. In 34 cases of abnormal inferior vena cava, there were 17 cases complicated with other system abnormalities, including 13 cases of cardiac anomalies. Conclusions: The left inferior vena cava and double inferior vena cava have characteristic imaging findings, and prenatal diagnosis can be made with ultrasonography. This type of congenital deformity is frequently complicated with other system abnormalities, which should be excluded in fetus, especially for heart system.

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Progress on evaluation, diagnosis and management of disorders of sex development
CHEN Guangjie,WANG Xiaohao,TANG Daxing
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 358-366.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.02
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Disorders of sex development (DSD) refer to a group of diseases characterized by abnormal congenital development of chromosomes, gonad or genitals with different pathophysiological changes and clinical manifestations. DSD is more common in neonates and adolescents, and neonates often show genital abnormalities while adolescents show abnormal sexual development during puberty. It is the international consensus that the scope of DSD should include basic clinical evaluation (internal and external genitalia and endocrine hormones), diagnostic confirmation (chromosome, genetic diagnosis), psychological assessment for children and family, treatment (sex assignment, hormone replacement and surgical intervention), potential fertility protection and long-term follow-up, which require the expertise of pediatric endocrinology, pediatric urology, clinical psychology, genetic disciplines, medical images and other related disciplines; that is, individualized management of children with DSD requires an experienced multidisciplinary team (MDT). This article reviews the recent progress on the evaluation, diagnosis and management of disorders of sex development.

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Application of Logistic regression and decision tree analysis in prediction of acute myocardial infarction events
ZHANG Sheng,HU Zhenjie,YE Lu,ZHENG Yaru
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (6): 594-602.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.12.02
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Objective: To evaluate the application of decision tree method and Logistic regression in the prediction of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) events. Methods: The clinical data of 295 patients, who underwent coronary angiography due to angina or chest pain with unidentified causes in Zhejiang provincial People's Hospital during October 2018 and April 2019, were retrospectively analyzed. Fifty five patients were identified as AMI. Logistic regression and decision tree methods were performed to establish predictive models for the occurrence of AMI, respectively; and the models created by decision tree analysis were divided into Logistic regression-independent model (Tree 1) and Logistic regression-dependent model (Tree 2). The performance of Logistic regression and decision tree models were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that history of coronary artery disease, multi-vessel coronary artery disease, statin use and apolipoprotein (ApoA1) level were independent influencing factors of AMI events (all P < 0.05). Logistic regression-independent decision tree model (Tree 1) showed that multi-vessel coronary artery disease was the root node, and history of coronary artery disease, ApoA1 level (the cutoff value:1.314 g/L) and anti-platelet drug use were descendant nodes. In Logistic regression-dependent decision tree model (Tree 2), multi-vessel coronary artery disease was still the root node, but only followed by two descendant nodes including history of coronary artery disease and ApoA1 level. The area under the curve (AUC) of ROC of Logistic regression model was 0.826, and AUCs of decision tree models were 0.765 and 0.726, respectively. AUC of Logistic regression model was significantly higher than that of Tree 2 (95% CI=0.041-0.145, Z=3.534, P < 0.001), but was not higher than that of Tree 1 (95% CI=-0.014-0.121, Z=-1.173, P>0.05). Conclusion: The predictive value for AMI event was comparable between Logistic regression-independent decision tree model and Logistic regression model, implying the data mining methods are feasible and effective in AMI prevention and control.

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Analysis of medication characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine in treating COVID-19 based on data mining
FAN Tiantian,CHEN Yongcan,BAI Yu,MA Fengqi,WANG Hengcang,YANG Yiping,CHEN Jinxu,LIN Yuqi
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 260-269.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.14
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Objective: To analysis the medication characteristics of the prescriptions issued via open channel by the National and Provincial Health Committee and the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine in treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: We collected the data of traditional Chinese medicine related to treatment plans published by the National and Provincial Health Committee and the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine from the start of COVID-19 outbreak to February 19, 2020. The frequency analysis, cluster analysis and association analysis were performed. Results: The study collected 4 national and 34 regional prevention and treatment plans, 578 items, 84 traditional Chinese formulations, 60 Chinese patent medicines, and 230 Chinese herbs. The high frequently used herbs were Liquorice, Scutellariabaicalensis, Semen armeniacaeamarae, and Gypsum. The commonly used traditional formulations included Maxing Shigan decoction, Yin Qiao powder, and Xuanbai Chengqi decoction. The Chinese patent drugs included Angong Niuhuang pill, Xuebijing injection, and Lianhua Qingwen capsule. The most common paired medications were Ephedra and Semen armeniacaeamarae, Fructusforsythiae and Liquorice. Two core combinations and one novel formula were discovered in the study. Conclusions: Yin Qiao powder and Huopo Xialing decoction are the basic formulations for Weifen syndrome of COVID-19. In addition, Maxing Shigan decoction, Liang Ge powder, Qingwen Baidu decoction and Da Yuan decoction are the basic formulations for Qifen syndrome of COVID-19. The main medication characteristics are clearing heat, entilating lung, removing toxicity and removing turbidity. It shows that removing toxicity and eliminating evil are the prescription thought in treating epidemic disease of traditional Chinese medicine.

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Genetic analysis and prenatal diagnosis of a sporadic family with neurofibromatosis type 1
LIU Bei,YANG Yanmei,YAN Kai,CHEN Min,WANG Liya,HUANG Yingzhi,QIAN Yeqing,DONG Minyue
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 367-372.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.03
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Objective: To identify pathogenic mutation for a family with neurofibromatosis type 1(NF1) and provide prenatal diagnosis for them. Methods: Mutation analysis of the sporadic family with NF1 was performed with target captured next generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. RNA samples were extracted from the lymphocytes of NF1 patient and her parents. RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed to analyze the relative mRNA expression in the samples. Prenatal diagnosis of the pathogenic mutation was offered to the fetus. Results: A novel splicing mutation c.1260+4A>T in the NF1 gene was found in the proband of the family, but was not found in her parents.cDNA sequencing showed that 13 bases inserted into the 3' end of exon 11 in the NF1 gene lead to a frameshift mutation. Prenatal diagnosis suggested that the fetus did not carried the mutant. Conclusion: The NF1: c.1260+4A>T mutation found in the NF1 patient is considered to be pathogenic, which provides information for family genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.

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Genetic study of a family of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by a heterozygous mutation of CLN6 gene
LOU Tie,HUANG Yingzhi,DONG Minyue
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 373-377.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.04
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Objective: To analyze the genetic cause of a family with autosomal recessive neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL). Methods: The proband was screened for mutations within the coding region of the candidate genes through high-throughput targeted sequencing. Potential causative mutations were verified by PCR and Sanger sequencing in the proband and his parents. RT-PCR and TA clone sequencing were performed to investigate whether the mRNAs were abnormally spliced. Results: The sequencing results revealed compound heterozygous mutations of CLN6:c.486+2T>C and c.486+4A>T, which were respectively inherited from his parents. RT-PCR and TA cloning sequencing suggested that the mRNAs were abnormally spliced in two forms due to both mutations. Conclusions: The compound heterozygous mutations of CLN6:c.486+2T>C and c.486+4A>T are possibly the genetic causes of the NCL family. Detection of the novel mutation has extended mutation spectrum of CLN6.

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Research progress on mechanism in adaptation of hemoglobin to plateau hypoxia
LI Xue,LI Wenbin,FENG Shilan,WANG Rong
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (6): 674-681.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.12.13
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Low oxygen partial pressure is the main cause of acute mountain sickness.Hemoglobin plays a crucial physiological role in the binding, utilization, transportation and release of oxygen in the body. To increase the capacity of oxygen binding of hemoglobin or the capacity of oxygen supply in tissues can help alleviate altitude sickness. However, increasing hemoglobin content has certain limitations. Using techniques from molecular biology, researchers are looking for endogenous or exogenous substances that can regulate the conformation of hemoglobin to increase oxygen uptake in the alveoli, or the availability of alveolar oxygen in the tissues. At present, the research on allosteric modulators to improve the affinity of hemoglobin has made some progress, and research on applying this mechanism to plateau hypoxia is also underway. This article reviews the relationship between hemoglobin and hypoxia, the structure of hemoglobin and the role of various allosteric modulators in hypoxia, which would provide information for finding new substances regulating the conformation of hemoglobin.

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Association of maternal age with fetal sex chromosome aneuploidies
LEI Yu,DONG Minyue
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 409-413.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.10
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Objective: To analyze the impact of maternal age on sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCA). Methods: Pregnant women who had karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid in Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2014 to July 2018 were recruited. The association of the maternal age with fetal SCAs was analyzed. Results: The incidence of 45, X in age group >34- < 38 was lower than that of ≤ 28 age group (P < 0.05). For the incidences of total sex chromosome trisomy and 47, XXY in age groups 34- < 38 and ≥38 were higher than age groups ≤28 and >28-34 (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The incidence of 47, XXX in age group ≥ 38 was higher than that in age group>28-34 (P < 0.05). However, the incidence of 47, XYY had no differences among the four groups (P>0.05). After excluding the high risk of sex chromosome abnormalities by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), we found that for 45, X, the incidences of two groups with advanced age were lower than that of ≤ 28 year-old group of age group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and incidence in age group >34- < 38 was also lower than that in age group >28-34 (P < 0.05). The other results were consistent with those without excluding the high risk of sex chromosome abnormalities by NIPT. Conclusion: Advanced age decreases the incidence of 45, X, but increases the risk of sex chromosome trisomy, especially 47, XXX and 47, XXY.

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Application of enhanced recovery after surgery in the treatment of children with congenital choledochal cyst
ZHAO Hangyan,CAI Duote,GAO Zhigang,CHEN Qingjiang,ZHU Jihua,HUANG Jinjin
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (5): 474-480.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.10.02
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Objective: To explore the feasibility of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) in treatment of children with congenital choledochal cyst. Methods: One hundred and thirty children with congenital choledochal cysts admitted in the Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University from June 2017 to June 2019 were divided into ERAS group (n=65) and control group (n=65) according to admission order. The intestinal tract condition during operation, time of operation, surgical results, time for eating after operation, abdominal drainage after operation, length of hospital stay after operation, total hospital expenses and complications were compared between two groups. Results: Compared with the control group, the satisfaction of intestinal operation field, recovery of gastrointestinal function after operation, time required for the volume of peritoneal drainage fluid to be less than 50 mL, time of abdominal drainage tube removal, and length of hospital stay were all improved in ERAS group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).ERAS group had more peritoneal effusion after removal of abdominal drainage tube (P < 0.01), but the incidence of edema after operation was lower (P < 0.05). The satisfaction of parents in the two groups was similar, but the cooperation of parents in the ERAS group was improved (P < 0.05) and the total cost of hospitalization was reduced (P < 0.01). Conclusion: ERAS has advantages over the traditional scheme and can be used in the clinical treatment of children with congenital choledochal cyst.

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Effects of resveratrol on aging of mesenchymal stem cells and its mechanism
ZHANG Dayong,LIN Jiuzhou,WANG Yayan,XU Shan,LUO Chengzhuan,CAI Jiaye,JIANG Xuefan,PAN Jianping
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (6): 617-624.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.12.05
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Objective: To investigate the effects of resveratrol (Res) on aging of marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and to explore its mechanism. Methods: MSCs were isolated from young SD rats and cultured in vitro. The optimal D-gal concentration for induction of MSCs senescence was determined. Then MSCs were randomly divided into four groups, namely the control group, 10μmol/L, 50μmol/L and 100μmol/L Res groups. After the cells were treated with different concentration of Res for 48 h, the senescence-associated changes were examined with senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining; the expression of p53, p16 and γ-H2AX was evaluated by Western blot. The total active oxygen species (ROS) level was determined by flow cytometry with DCFH-DA staining. In order to assess the effect of Res on the mitochondrial function, MitoSox Red staining was used to detect mitochondrial ROS levels in each group, mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 assay, mPTP method was used to detect mitochondrial membrane channel opening level, and Western blot was used to detect the expression level of cytoplasmic cytochrome C (Cyt-C). Results: D-gal 10 and 50 g/L significantly increased the number of SA-β-gal positive cells and the level of mitochondrial ROS (all P < 0.01). Therefore, 10 g/L D-gal was used to induce the senescence of MSCs in subsequent experiment. Compared with the control group, the number of SA-β-gal positive cells in Res groups significantly decreased (all P < 0.01), the expression of p53, p16 and γ-H2AX decreased, and the total and mitochondrial ROS level also decreased (all P < 0.01). Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential, open level of mitochondrial membrane channels and the levels of cytoplasm Cyt-C in the Res treatment groups decreased compared with the control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Conclusion: Resveratrol can protect the mitochondrial function of MSCs, and effectively delay the MSC senescence.

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Clinical experience of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in severe COVID-19 patients
HE Guojun,HAN Yijiao,FANG Qiang,ZHOU Jianying,SHEN Jifang,LI Tong,PU Qibin,CHEN Aijun,QI Zhiyang,SUN Lijun,CAI Hongliu
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2020, 49 (2): 232-239.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.13
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Acute respiratory failure due to acute hypoxemia is the major manifestation in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Rational and effective respiratory support is crucial in the management of COVID-19 patients. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has been utilized widely due to its superiority over other non-invasive respiratory support techniques. To avoid HFNC failure and intubation delay, the key issues are proper patients, timely application and improving compliance. It should be noted that elder patients are vulnerable for failed HFNC. We applied HFNC for oxygen therapy in severe and critical ill COVID-19 patients and summarized the following experiences. Firstly, to select the proper size of nasal catheter, to locate it at suitable place, and to confirm the nose and the upper respiratory airway unobstructed. Secondly, an initial flow of 60 L/min and 37℃ should be given immediately for patients with obvious respiratory distress or weak cough ability; otherwise, low-level support should be given first and the level gradually increased. Thirdly, to avoid hypoxia or hypoxemia, the treatment goal of HFNC should be maintained the oxygen saturation (SpO2) above 95% for patients without chronic pulmonary disease. Finally, patients should wear a surgical mask during HFNC treatment to reduce the risk of virus transmission through droplets or aerosols.

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Application of single nucleotide polymorphism microarray in clinical diagnosis of intellectual disability or retardation
HU Junjie,QIAN Yeqing,SUN Yixi,YU Jialing,LUO Yuqin,DONG Minyue
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 420-428.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.12
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Objective: To assess the clinical application of single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP array) in patients with intellectual disability/developmental delay(ID/DD). Methods: SNP array was performed to detect genome-wide DNA copy number variants (CNVs) for 145 patients with ID/DD in Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2013 to June 2018. The CNVs were analyzed by CHAS software and related databases. Results: Among 145 patients, pathogenic chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 32 cases, including 26 cases of pathogenic CNVs and 6 cases of likely pathogenic CNVs. Meanwhile, 18 cases of uncertain clinical significance and 14 cases of likely benign were identified, no significant abnormalities were found in 81 cases (including benign). Conclusion: SNP array is effective for detecting chromosomal abnormalities in patients with ID/DD with high efficiency and resolution.

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Genetic analysis of a fetus with multiple malformations caused by complex translocations of four chromosomes
LUO Yuqin,SHEN Min,SUN Yixi,QIAN Yeqing,WANG Liya,YU Jialing,HU Junjie,JIN Fan,DONG Minyue
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 397-402.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.08
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Objective: To conduct genetic analysis in a fetus with complex translocation of four chromosomes. Methods: G-banded chromosome karyotype analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed in a fetus with multiple malformations. Peripheral blood chromosome karyotype and FISH were also carried out for the parents. Results: The fetal amniotic fluid karyotype was 46, XY, t(12; 13)(q22; q32). SNP array analysis showed that there were 20 192 kb duplication at 1q42.13q44 and 13 293 kb deletion at 15q26.1q26.3 in the fetus. The results of karyotype and SNP array were inconsistent. FISH analyses on the parental peripheral blood samples demonstrated that the mother was a cryptic 46, XX, t(1; 15)(q42.1; q26.1) translocation. The fetus had inherited 46, XY, t(12; 13)(q22; q32) from his father and der(15)t(1; 15)(q42.1; q26.1) from his mother. Conclusions: The 1q42.13q44 duplication and 15q26.1q26.3 deletion may have contributed to the abnormal sonographic features of the fetus. The combination of cytogenetic, SNP array and FISH techniques was beneficial for providing an accurate genetic counseling.

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Value of myocardial scar in predicting malignant ventricular arrhythmia in patients with chronic myocardial infarction
GUO Danling,HU Hongjie,ZHAO Zhenhua,LYU Sangying,HUANG Yanan,JIANG Ruhong,PU Cailing,NI Hongxia
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (5): 511-516.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.10.08
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Objective: To assess the predictive value of myocardial scar mass in malignant ventricular arrhythmia (MVA) after myocardial infarction. Methods: Thirty myocardial infarction patients with complete electrophysiology and cardiac MRI data admitted from January 2012 to August 2017 were enrolled in the study. According to the results of intracavitary electrophysiological study, MVA developed in 16 patients (MVA group) and not developed in 14 patients (non-MVA group). The qualitative and quantitative analysis of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVFE) and scar mass was performed with CVI42 post-processing software and predictive value of myocardial scar and LVEF for MVA after myocardial infarction was analyzed using ROC curves. Results: LVEF in MVA group was significantly lower than that in non-MVA group, and scar mass in MVA group was significantly higher than that in non-MVA group (all P < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that LVEF (OR=1.580) and scar mass (OR=6.270) were risk factors for MVA after myocardial infarction. For predicting MVA, the area under ROC curve (AUC) of LVEF was 0.696 with a sensitivity of 0.786 and the specificity of 0.685; the AUC of the scar mass was 0.839 with a sensitivity was 0.618 and the specificity of 0.929; the AUC of LVEF combined with scar mass was 0.848 with a sensitivity of 0.688 and specificity of 0.857. Conclusion: Myocardial scar assessed by late gadolinium enhancement MRI is more effective than LVEF in predicting MVA after myocardial infarction.

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Noninvasive prenatal screening for twin pregnancy: an analysis of 2057 cases
YIN Yixuan,ZHU Hui,QIAN Yeqing,JIN Jinglei,MEI Jin,DONG Minyue
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 403-408.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.09
Abstract   HTML PDF (905KB) ( 126 )  

Objective: To analyze the results of noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) for fetal chromosome aneuploidy in twin pregnancy. Methods: A total of 2057 women with twin-pregnancy between 12-26+6 weeks were recruited from Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou Municipal Women's Hospital and Jiaxing Maternal and Child Health Hospital during February 2015 to August 2018. The cell-free DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood sample for DNA library, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) was performed by high-throughput sequencing technique. The fetal karyotype analysis or neonatal karyotype analysis was performed in pregnant women with fetal chromosome aneuploidy, and all subjects were followed up. The efficiency of NIPS testing for twin aneuploidy was calculated. Results: NIPS revealed chromosome abnormalities in 11 out of 2057 twin pregnant women, 9 cases were confirmed chromosome abnormalities, 2 cases were normal and no false negative cases. In this screening, the detection rate, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, false positive rate of NIPS were 100.00%, 100.00%, 99.90%, 81.82%, 0.10%. Those were 100.00%, 100.00%, 99.95%, 87.50% and 0.05% for trisomy 21, 100.00%, 100.00%, 100.00%, 100.00%, 0.00% for trisomy18, and the specificity and false positive rate for trisomy13 were 99.95% and 0.05%, respectively. Conclusion: NIPS can detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidy rapidly and accurately in twin pregnancies, and it is of value in clinical application.

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Genetic analysis of a family of Van der Woude syndrome
XU Yuqing,QIAN Yeqing,YAO Weimiao,DONG Minyue
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 378-383.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.05
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Objective: To analyze clinical and genetic features of a family affected with Van der Woude syndrome. Methods: The umbilical cord blood of the proband and the peripheral blood of the parents were used for the whole exon sequencing to find the candidate gene.Peripheral blood of 9 members of the family were collected for Sanger sequencing verification, bioinformatics analysis and genotype-phenotype correlation analysis. Results: The proband was diagnosed with cleft lip and palate by ultrasound. His father and grandmother had hollow lower lip and all other family members did not have the similar phenotype. A missense c.263A>G (p.N88S) mutation was found in exon 4 of IRF6 gene in the proband, his father and his grandmother.The mutation was not found in other family members. Conclusion: A missense c.263A>G (p.N88S) mutation in IRF6 gene probably underlies the pathogenesis of Van der Woude syndrome in the family and the mutation has been firstly discovered in China.

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Research progress on early identification of severe adenovirus pneumonia in children
LIN Jing,CHEN Zhimin
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (5): 567-572.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.10.16
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Severe adenovirus pneumonia has a high mortality and incidence of sequelae. Fever and cough are the main symptoms of children's severe adenovirus pneumonia, but such clinical manifestations are lack of specificity. For children with persistent high fever who are in the epidemic age and season, the adenovirus etiology detection, blood routine, cytokines, T cell subsets and imaging examinations are suggested. Children with early manifestations of infiltration of lung segment and lobar parenchyma, obvious emphysema, interstitial pneumonia or a large amount of pleural effusion should be alerted to have severe adenovirus pneumonia. This article reviews the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of adenovirus pneumonia in different seasons, regions and serology, and the laboratory findings and imaging features of severe adenovirus pneumonia, which would be helpful for the early identification of the disease.

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Prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy outcomes of 22q11.2 duplication syndrome: analysis of 8 cases
MEI Jin,LIU Jiao,WANG Min,ZHANG Wen,WANG Hao,LU Sha,HE Chaying,JIN Chunlei
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 429-433.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.13
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Objective: To investigate the relationship between 22q11.2 duplication and clinical phenotype. Methods: Eight fetuses with 22q11.2 duplication syndrome diagnosed by chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) through amniocentesis from February 2015 to March 2017 were enrolled in the study. The prenatal diagnostic indications, fetal ultrasound, chromosome karyotype, peripheral blood CMA results of parents, pregnancy outcomes and follow-up of postnatal growth and development were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Prenatal serological screening indicated 6 cases with high risk of trisomy 21, 1 case with nuchal fold (NF) thickening and 1 case of maternal chromosomal balanced translocation. Fetal ultrasonography showed 1 case of NF thickening, 1 case of fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly and 6 cases with normal ultrasound. CMA demonstrated that the size of duplication was between 651 kb and 3.26 Mb, and 22q11.2 duplication. Parents' CMA results revealed that 6 cases inherited from one of the parents with normal phenotype, and the parents of 2 cases refused the CMA test. Two couples chose induced labor; 6 cases of continued pregnancy had normal phenotypes at birth. All 6 cases were followed up with longest of 3.5 years. The growth and psychological development were normal in 5 cases, and one case was growth retardation. Conclusion: There were no specific clinical phenotypes in 22q11.2 duplication syndrome, and most of them were inherited from one parent who has normal phenotype.

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Outcome of re-pregnancy in women with uterine artery embolization for postpartum hemorrhage
LIN Xiaoxiao,SUN Daifei,FU Jun,ZHONG Huizhen
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (5): 540-545.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.10.12
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Objective: To evaluate the outcome of re-pregnancy in women with uterine artery embolization(UAE)for postpartum hemorrhage(PPH). Methods: Clinical data of 117 pregnant women with previous PPH admitted in Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital from January 2010 to January 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them 40 cases were treated with UAE (UAE group) and 77 cases were not treated with UAE (control group). The outcomes of re-pregnancy were followed up and compared between two groups. Results: There were significant differences in the incidence of induced abortion in early pregnancy and cesarean scars pregnancy (CSP) between the two groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In the UAE group, the incidence of PPH, placental accretion and hysterectomy rate was significantly higher than that of control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that UAE was independent risk factor for CSP, placenta accretion, PPH and hystere-ctomy (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Conclusions: The overall fertility and re-pregnant outcomes in women with previous UAE for PPH are favorable. However, the risk of CSP, placenta accretion and associated recurrence of PPH and hysterectomy is higher in women receiving UAE during subsequent pregnancy.

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Clinical analysis of annular pancreas in neonates
WANG Linyan,XUE Jiajin,CHEN Yi,LYU Chengjie,HUANG Shoujiang,TOU Jinfa,GAO Zhigang,CHEN Qingjiang
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (5): 481-486.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.10.03
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Objective: To analyze clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of annular pancreas in neonates. Methods: Clinical data of 114 neonates with annular pancreas admitted in the Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University from January 2009 to December 2018 were reviewed. The demographic parameters (gestational age, birth weight), clinical manifestations, onset time, results of antenatal examination, associated anomalies, radiological findings, operations, postoperative complications were analyzed. Results: One hundred and two cases were examined by abdominal echography, in which 68 cases showed duodenal obstruction, 4 cases showed annular pancreas. Plain abdomen X-ray examination performed in 113 cases before operation, 76 cases presented double-bubble sign, 12 cases presented single-bubble sign and 5 cases had high-position intestinal obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal radiography (UGI) was performed in 103 cases, which suggested duodenal obstruction in 102 cases. Operations were performed in all cases, of which 69 cases were operated under laparoscopy including 1 case converted to open laparotomy. The mean fasting time after surgery was (7.8±2.7) d, and the mean length of hospital stay was (16.9±10.1) d. Five patients had postoperative complications. The incidence of postoperative complications in antenatal abnormal group was lower than that in the antenatal non-abnormal group (P < 0.05); the average fasting time in laparoendscopic surgery group was shorter than that in traditional laparotomy group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Neonates with recurrent vomiting early after birth should be highly suspected to have annular pancreas. The fetal chromosome examination should be performed with abnormal antenatal screening. Surgery is the only effective way to diagnose and treat annular pancreas, and laparoscopic surgery could be the first choice for experienced doctors.

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Correlation between histone methylation level and pathological development of osteoarthritis
DU Xiaotian,OUYANG Hongwei
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (6): 682-687.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.12.14
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Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative cartilage disease. A large number of studies have shown the close association between epigenetics and osteoarthritis. Histone methylation is a type of epigenetic modification, and the link between histone methylation and osteoarthritis has also been revealed. In this article, we summarize the correlation between methylation levels of different histones and osteoarthritis in an attempt to explore the changes and regulation mechanisms of histone methylation in osteoarthritis. It has been shown that there are possible relations between the methylation levels of different amino acids on histone H3 and the pathological development of osteoarthritis; specifically, the rise of methylation level at the lysine 4 would aggravate the pathological development of osteoarthritis, while the the pattern of lysine 9 and 27 would be the opposite. These results indicate the possible existence of a complex network of histone methylation modifications. And the specific regulation of histone methylation levels in different positions may delay or prevent the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis.

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Research progress on the effects of plateau hypoxia on blood-brain barrier structure and drug permeability
DING Yidan,LI Wenbin,WANG Rong,ZHANG Jianchun
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (6): 668-673.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.12.12
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Drugs for the treatment of central nervous system diseases need to enter the brain tissue through the blood-brain barrier to function. In high altitude hypoxic environment, there are changes in tight junction proteins of blood-brain barrier tissue structure, transporters in astrocytes and endothelial cells and ATP in endothelial cells; at the same time the permeability of the blood-brain barrier is increased. These changes are an important reference for rational drug use in patients with central nervous system disease in the plateau region. This article reviews the research progress on the effects of plateau hypoxia on the structure of the blood-brain barrier and related drug permeability.

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Research progress on uniparental disomy in cancer
CHEN Dianyu,QI Ming
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (5): 560-566.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.10.15
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Uniparental disomy (UPD) refers to a chromosome defect that an individual's homologous chromosome or segments are inherited from one parent. UPD can cause either aberrant patterns of genomic imprinting or homozygosity of mutations, leading to various diseases, including cancer. The mechanisms of UPD formation are diverse but largely due to the incorrect chromosome separation during cell division. UPD does not alter the number of gene copies, thus is difficult to be detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques effectively. Assisted by the new techniques such as single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, more and more UPD-related cases have been reported recently. UPD events are non-randomly distributed across cancer types, which play important role in the occurrence, development and metastasis of cancer. Here we review the research progress on the formation mechanisms, detection methods, the involved chromosomal regions and genes, and clinical significance of UPD; and also discuss the directions for future studies in this field.

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Chloroxoquinoline inhibits invasion in breast cancer via down-regulating Rho/Rho kinase signaling pathway
LIU Jingwen,YANG Xinglian,SHEN Kaili,ZENG Linghui,SUN Yan
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (6): 631-637.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.12.07
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Objective: To investigate the effect of chloroxoquinoline on cytoskeleton of breast cancer cells and its relation with Rho/Rho kinase signaling pathway. Methods: Breast cancer Bcap37 and MDA-MB-453 cells were treated with different concentrations of chloroxoquinoline. Wound healing and Transwell assay were conducted to detect cell migration and invasion, respectively. Rhodamine-phalloidin staining and immunofluorescent staining were used to observe the polymerization state of F-actin and the expression of α-Tublin in breast cancer cells, respectively. Western blot was used to detect the phosphorylation level of key protein in Rho/Rho kinase signaling pathway. Results: Compared with the control group, chloroxoquinoline treatment induced dose-dependent decrease in cell migration and invasion, and Bcap37 and MDA-MB-453 cells treated with chloroxoquinoline showed dose-dependent changes in cell morphology and decrease in cell body. The staining of F-actin and α-Tublin was irregular and clustered. Furthermore, treatment of chloroxoquinoline down-regulated the phosphorylation of the Rho/Rho kinase signaling proteins Cofilin, Limk and Rock2 (all P < 0.01). Conclusions: Chloroxoquinoline inhibits the cytoskeleton in breast cancer Bcap37 and MDA-MB-453 cells and inhibits cell migration. This effect may be associated with down-regulation of Rho/Rho kinase signaling pathway.

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Prognosis of fetuses with cystichygroma and nuchal translucency/nuchal fold thickening on prenatal echography
WANG Yayun,CHEN Yuan,YANG Mengmeng,XI Fangfang,ZHAN Qitao,JIANG Ying,ZHAO Baihui,LUO Qiong
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 434-438.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.14
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Objective: To analyze the prognosis of fetuses with cystic hygroma (CH) or nuchal translucency (NT) or nuchal fold (NF) thickening detected by prenatal echography. Methods: From January 2014 to December 2015, 124 fetuses with CH and NT/NF thickening on prenatal echography were enrolled from Women's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. The basic clinical information, ultrasonic results, pregnancy outcomes and newborn follow-ups were analyzed. The cases were grouped by prognosis and the factors affecting prognosis were analyzed with logistic regression. Results: There were 85 cases of labor induction including one stillbirth and 39 cases delivered. Except one infant who died after birth, all live births survived with good prognosis. Univariate analysis showed that the gestational age at diagnosis of poor prognosis group was earlier than that of good prognosis group (P < 0.01); and the former group also had higher hydrops fetalis rate and additional structural anomalies rate (all P < 0.01). Multivariate regression analysis showed that hydrops fetalis (OR=90.105, P < 0.05) and additional structural anomalies (OR=61.854, P < 0.05) were risk factors of poor prognosis in fetuses with CH and NT/NF thickening. Conclusions: Fetuses with diagnosed CH or NT/NF thickening on prenatal ultrasonography are likely to be associated with chromosomal abnormality. Early gestational weeks, hydrops fetalis and additional structural anomalies may indicate poor prognosis.

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Prenatal diagnosis and management of fetal hepatic hemangioma
ZHANG Dandan,WANG Junmei
J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)    2019, 48 (4): 439-445.   DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.08.15
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Objective: To review the application of medical imaging in diagnosis and management of fetal hepatic hemangioma. Methods: Clinical data and imaging findings of 14 cases of fetal hepatic hemangioma, who were diagnosed prenatally and followed up in Women's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine from February 2014 to September 2018 were retrospective reviewed. Results: The fetal hepatic hemangiomas were single lesions in all 14 cases, and most of them were located in the right lobe of the liver (13/14). Ultrasound images were mainly hypoechoic with heterogeneity, the honeycomb-like or grid-like anechoic regions were presented in 9 lesions and circumferential blood flow was observed with low to moderate blood flow resistance index. MRI findings showed well-defined lesions with low signal intensity on T1WI, and high or slightly high signal intensity on T2WI. Among 14 cases, there were 8 cases of induced labor and 6 cases of continuing pregnancy. In 6 cases of successful delivery, 2 were treated with propranolol, 4 cases were followed-up without treatment. The growth and development of 6 children were normal. The lesions of hepatic hemangioma showed no significant changes in 3 children and were reduced in the other 3 children, of whom the lesion was complete disappeared in 1 case. Conclusions: Fetal hepatic hemangiomas present relatively typical imaging characteristics, and prenatal diagnosis can be made with ultrasound and MRI. If there are no complications, the fetus with hepatic hemangioma can be delivered at full term with a good outcome.

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