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J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)
    
Replication and transmission mechanisms of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses
HE Yeyan1(),ZHENG Chanying2,3,4,*()
1. College of Animal Science and Technology·College of Veterinary Medicine, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou 311300, China
2. Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience and Technology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310000, China
3. College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
4. Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Detection Technology and Medicinal Effectiveness Appraisal, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
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Abstract  

The three known human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are composed of non-structural proteins, structural proteins and accessory proteins. Viral particles recognize host receptors via spike glycoprotein (S protein), enter host cells by membrane fusion, replicate in host cells through large replication-transcription complexes, and promote proliferation by interfering with and suppressing the host's immune response. Human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are hosted by humans and vertebrates. Viral particles are transmitted through droplets, contact and aerosols or likely through digestive tract, urine, eyes and other routes. This review discusses the mechanisms of proliferation and transmission of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses based on the results of existing research, providing basis for future study on interrupting the transmission and pathogenicity of human highly pathogenic coronaviruses.



Key wordsCoronavirus      Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus      Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus      Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2      Corona virus disease 2019      Virus replication      Transmission     
Received: 23 March 2020      Published: 16 April 2020
CLC:  R373.1  
Corresponding Authors: ZHENG Chanying     E-mail: yeyanhe1997@163.com;zhengchanying@zju.edu.cn
Cite this article:

HE Yeyan, ZHENG Chanying. Replication and transmission mechanisms of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses. J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 0, (): 0-0.

URL:

http://www.zjujournals.com/med/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.16     OR     http://www.zjujournals.com/med/Y0/V/I/0


人类高致病性冠状病毒的增殖和传播机制研究进展

严重急性呼吸系统综合征病毒(SARS-CoV)、中东呼吸综合征病毒(MERS-CoV)和严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒2(SARS-CoV-2)是目前已知的三种人类高致病性冠状病毒,由非结构蛋白、结构蛋白和附属蛋白组成。病毒粒子通过冠状病毒的刺突糖蛋白(S蛋白)识别宿主受体,以膜融合方式进入宿主细胞,通过大型复制转录复合体在宿主细胞内复制,并通过干扰和抑制宿主的免疫应答来促进增殖。人类高致病性冠状病毒的宿主是人和脊椎动物,病毒粒子通过飞沫、接触、气溶胶等途径感染肺部细胞,也可能通过消化道、尿液、眼部等其他途径传播。本文基于现有研究结果讨论人类高治病性冠状病毒的增殖和传播机制,以期为阻断其传播和致病提供依据。


关键词: 冠状病毒,  严重急性呼吸系统综合征病毒,  中东呼吸综合征病毒,  严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒2,  2019冠状病毒病,  病毒复制,  传播 
Fig 1 Schematic illustration of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV genomes
Fig 2 Self-replication of human highly pathogenic coronaviruses
Fig 3 Schematic illustration of membrane fusion mediated by S protein
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