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J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)  2019, Vol. 48 Issue (1): 75-82    DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.02.12
    
Relationship between temperament, parenting style and resilience of children aged 3-5 years
NIU Yubai1(),ZHANG Lingyan1,HAO Zesheng1,JI Yuzhu2,3()
1.School of Psychology, Zhejiang Science and Technology University, Hangzhou 310018, China
2.Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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Abstract   Objective

To investigate the developmental characteristics of resilience in children aged 3-5, and to explore the relationship between temperament, parenting style and resilience.

Methods

A total of 570 preschoolers aged 3-5 years in Hangzhou participated in this study. The children’s teachers completed the assessment of the resilience scale of DECA-P2 (Devereux Early Childhood Assessment for Preschoolers Second Edition); the children’s parents completed assessment of temperament questionnaire CBQ (Children’s Behavior Questionnaire) and parenting style questionnaire PSDQ (Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire).

Results

Totally 432 valid questionnaires were retrieved with a recovery rate of 75.79%. The levels of initiative and self-regulation of 5-y children were higher than those of children aged 3 or 4 (all P<0.01); the level of attachment/relationship of 5-y children was higher than that of children aged 4 (P<0.01); the levels of initiative and self-regulation of girls were higher than those of boys (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The negative affect dimension of temperament was negatively correlated with resilience (all P<0.05), while the effortful control and authoritative parenting styles were positively correlated with resilience (all P<0.05). The negative affect and effortful control were able to partially predict resilience of children through authoritative parenting style (mediating effect were -0.0143 and 0.0363).

Conclusion

Preschoolers aged 3-5 years with different age and gender show differences in resilience, and parenting styles may play a mediating effect between temperament and resilience.



Key wordsPsychology, child      Child rearing      Education/methods      Temperament      Parents      Surveys and questionnaires     
Received: 05 February 2018      Published: 10 May 2019
CLC:  B844  
Corresponding Authors: JI Yuzhu     E-mail: 1056926355@qq.com;yuzhu@hotmail.com
Cite this article:

NIU Yubai,ZHANG Lingyan,HAO Zesheng,JI Yuzhu. Relationship between temperament, parenting style and resilience of children aged 3-5 years. J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2019, 48(1): 75-82.

URL:

http://www.zjujournals.com/med/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2019.02.12     OR     http://www.zjujournals.com/med/Y2019/V48/I1/75


气质、父母教养方式与幼儿心理韧性的关系

目的

考察3~5岁幼儿心理韧性的发展特点并探讨气质、父母教养方式与幼儿心理韧性之间的关系,检验父母教养方式的中介作用。

方法

选取杭州市570名幼儿为被试对象,由幼儿教师完成Devereux幼儿心理韧性量表评定,由幼儿父母完成气质问卷和教养方式问卷的评定。采用AMOS 17.0对幼儿气质、父母教养方式与心理韧性之间的关系进行结构方程模型检验,并采用非参数百分位Bootstrap方法对模型的中介效应进行检验。

结果

共回收有效问卷432份,回收率为75.79%。5岁幼儿心理韧性的主动性和自我调节两个维度高于3岁和4岁幼儿(均P<0.01),依恋/关系维度高于4岁幼儿(P<0.01);女生的主动性和自我调节维度高于男生(P<0.05或P<0.01)。气质的负性情绪维度与心理韧性三个维度均呈负相关(均P<0.05),而努力控制维度和权威型教养方式则与心理韧性三个维度均呈正相关(均P<0.05)。负性情绪和努力控制均部分通过权威型教养方式预测幼儿心理韧性(中介效应分别为 -0.0143和0.0363)。

结论

3~5岁幼儿心理韧性存在年龄、性别差异,且父母教养方式在气质与心理韧性之间起中介作用。


关键词: 心理学,儿童,  儿童抚养,  教育/方法,  气质,  双亲,  调查和问卷 
组 别 n 主动性 自我调节 依恋/关系
3岁 男性 65 2.05±0.61 2.31±0.56 2.79±0.65
女性 51 2.32±0.53 2.57±0.48 2.94±0.62
4岁 男性 85 2.04±0.68 2.37±0.51 2.64±0.67
女性 69 2.09±0.71 2.51±0.46 2.65±0.68
5岁 男性 86 2.41±0.75 2.53±0.46 2.83±0.58
女性 76 2.53±0.70 2.81±0.53 3.04±0.63
Table 1 Descriptive statistical results of resilience among children aged 3-5
组 别 n 外倾性 负性情绪 努力控制
3岁 男性 65 4.19±0.88 4.05±0.74 5.07±0.79
女性 51 3.90±0.68 4.12±0.86 5.48±0.50
4岁 男性 85 4.12±0.70 4.06±0.76 5.10±0.63
女性 69 4.02±0.73 4.13±0.75 5.33±0.70
5岁 男性 86 4.31±0.75 3.96±0.74 5.15±0.64
女性 76 4.05±0.64 4.07±0.82 5.50±0.57
Table 2 Descriptive statistical results of temperaments among children aged 3-5
变 量 主动性 自我调节 依恋/关系
外倾性 0.10* -0.05 0.05
负性情绪 -0.16** -0.14** -0.14**
努力控制 0.10* 0.12* 0.13**
Table 3 Partial correlation analysis of temperament and mental resilience (r value)
组 别 n 权威型教养 专制型教养 鼓励谦虚 羞愧/爱剥夺 保 护 命 令
3岁 男性 65 57.67±7.49 23.10±6.43 6.87±2.25 8.18±2.52 10.02±2.44 9.26±1.79
女性 51 56.81±6.98 22.02±5.07 6.86±2.50 8.24±2.30 9.55±2.59 9.06±1.85
4岁 男性 85 55.52±8.89 22.97±6.23 6.75±2.12 8.42±2.19 9.97±2.36 9.27±1.88
女性 69 57.73±6.40 21.30±5.27 6.64±2.55 7.96±2.10 9.69±2.32 8.83±1.80
5岁 男性 86 56.46±8.42 21.89±4.70 6.82±2.33 8.38±2.09 9.60±2.23 9.25±1.87
女性 76 56.46±7.79 21.92±5.02 6.48±2.33 8.21±2.47 9.86±2.18 9.38±2.05
Table 4 Descriptive statistical results of parenting styles among children aged 3-5
变 量 主动性 自我调节 依恋/关系
权威型教养 0.16** 0.14** 0.14**
专制型教养 -0.04 -0.10* -0.09
鼓励谦虚 -0.004 -0.04 -0.07
羞愧/爱剥夺 -0.05 -0.04 -0.08
保 护 -0.04 -0.07 -0.09
命 令 -0.06 -0.03 -0.07
Table 5 Partial correlation analysis of temperament and mental resilience (r value)
Figure 1 Predicted model of temperament on resilience among children aged 3-5
Figure 2 The mediating model of parenting style
模 型 χ 2 df χ 2/df RMSEA GFI TLI CFI
模型1 2.705 5 0.54 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
模型2 24.663 10 2.466 0.058 0.985 0.953 0.978
模型3 24.666 11 2.242 0.054 0.985 0.960 0.979
Table 6 The results of model fit index
路 径 中介效应 95% CI 中介效应占比(%)
负性情绪→权威型教养→心理韧性 -0.13×0.11=-0.0143 -0.04~-0.002 7.8
努力控制→权威型教养→心理韧性 0.33×0.11=0.0363 0.01~0.08 20.6
Table 7 The results of bootstrap test of mediating effect
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