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J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci)  2021, Vol. 50 Issue (2): 141-147    DOI: 10.3724/zdxbyxb-2021-0105
Diagnostic strategies for oral manifestations of infectious diseases
CHEN Qianming1(),LI Zaiye2,ZENG Xin2,*()
1. Stomatology Hospital, School of Stomatology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine & Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases of Zhejiang Province, Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Research of Zhejiang Province, Cancer Center of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006, China;
2. Department of Oral Medicine, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Chengdu 610041, China
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Infectious diseases are caused by infection of organism with pathogenic agents, which may lead to epidemics. Many infectious diseases such as syphilis, diphtheria, measles, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome have specific and non-specific manifestations in the oral cavity. However, the same disease may have different oral manifestations in different patients clinically. We can apply the strategy of “three unusuals and one change” in clinical reasoning for diagnosis of infectious diseases with oral manifestations. The so-called “three unusuals” refer to unusual age, unusual location and unusual effect, and “one change” means the change from rare to common. In this article, we will give a comprehensive introduction about the oral manifestations of common communicable diseases and their diagnostic strategies.

Key wordsInfectious diseases      Oral diseases      Oral manifestations      Diagnosis      Differential diagnosis     
Received: 25 January 2021      Published: 18 June 2021
CLC:  R781.5  
Corresponding Authors: ZENG Xin     E-mail:;
Cite this article:

CHEN Qianming,LI Zaiye,ZENG Xin. Diagnostic strategies for oral manifestations of infectious diseases. J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), 2021, 50(2): 141-147.

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关键词: 传染病,  口腔疾病,  口腔表征,  诊断,  鉴别诊断 








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Table 1 Oral manifestations of common infectious diseases
Figure 1 Oral thrush in a patient with AIDS
Figure 2 The labial chancre in a patient with primary syphilis
Figure 3 Oral tuberculous ulcer in a patient with tuberculosis
Figure 4 HIV related Kaposi’s sarcoma in a patient with AIDS
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