浙江大学学报(农业与生命科学版) 2017, 43(3) 377-388 DOI:   10.3785/j.issn.1008-9209.2016.06.251  ISSN: 1008-9209 CN: 33-1247/S

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生态系统
沟渠
精细设计
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PubMed
现代农业沟渠生态化设计关键技术及其应用
杨洋,郭宗楼*
(浙江大学生物系统工程与食品科学学院,杭州 310058)
摘要: 以四川省芦山县生态沟渠工程建设项目为例,综合考虑渠道生产、生活、生态、景观等功能,从渠道的断面形式、衬砌方式、护坡样式、水生植物、生态景观化等方面进行研究,设计了一种新型的生态化精细灌排沟渠,介绍了生态化精细沟渠构建的设计原则和关键技术。对构建的生态化沟渠的综合效果评价结果表明:生态化沟渠处理方案的最终得分为84.65,等级属于良,优于普通沟渠处理方案(最终得分为77.9,等级属于中);虽然沟渠生态化处理工程在经济性及操作管理方面与普通沟渠处理方案没有显著差异,但在处理效果和废水回收利用方面表现出了一定的优势,沟渠生态化设计对污染物的去除效果好,出水回收利用率及达标率较高。说明沟渠生态化工程设计具有良好的生态性、经济性和可持续性。
关键词 生态系统   沟渠   精细设计   示范运用  
Key technology design of ecological ditch and its application in modern agriculture
YANG Yang, GUO Zonglou*
(College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China)
Abstract: Ditch is one of the most important elements in modern agriculture, which has a great impact on agricultural production and ecological environment. Traditional ditches mainly focus on convenient traffic, economic engineering cost, irrigation and drainage, but neglect the environment ecosystem.
In order to coordinate the relationship of ecology, economy and sustainability, and realize the win-win situation of water conservancy function and ecological function, proposing a new ecological detailed ditch for coordinating the relationship of the functional, ecological and economical, protecting agricultural production, giving attention to water conveyance efficiency and ecological function. Based on the research materials and experimental results in domestic and overseas, the construction of ecological canal project in Lushan County of Sichuan Province with combination of the Section form, lining method, slope protection style, aquatic plants, the ecological landscape, etc. This article put forward suitable ecological detailed design principles, key technologies, and actual ditch design reference styles. With the consideration of functional requirements, such as production, life, ecology, landscape, etc., some advanced, practical and new concepts with great significance were proposed, which can be used in practical engineering demonstration. Comprehensive evaluation of ditch ecological effect showed that the final score of the ecological ditch treatment project was 84.65, the grade was good, better than the ordinary ditch treatment project (the final score was 77.9, the grade was middle); Although the ecological ditch treatment project has no significant difference in the economic and operational management of the conventional ditch treatment project, it has shown some advantages in the treatment effect and the waste water recycling. The ecological design of the ditch has good effect on the removal of pollutants, Water recycling and compliance rate;The engineering ditch ecological design has good ecology, economy and sustainability. The following main achievements have been obtained:
1) Ecology: Slope and escape lanes were provided in the trenches to facilitate the escape of animals falling into the ditches; aquatic plants in the ditches can remove pollutants such as nitrogen, phosphorus and pesticides in the water body, and purify water quality; canal plants can slow down the water flow rate and reduce the temperature changes within the canal to promote crop growth;“ecological corridor”was set to strengthen the exchange of farmland and protect the“integrity”; water level monitoring equipment was applied to improve the water utilization at a large extent.
2) Economy: the fine design of each section greatly reduced the relevant project cost; aquatic plants purified water quality and reduced the cost of sewage treatment.
3) Sustainability: This project integrated a series of detailed designs, ensuring the function of the traditional ditch irrigation and drainage, and reducing the impact on the environment, which maintained the original ecology of farmland system and improved the use of ditches sustainability.
Keywords: ecosystems   ditch   detailed design   demonstration application  
收稿日期 2016-06-25 修回日期  网络版发布日期 2017-03-21 
DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9209.2016.06.251
基金项目:

通讯作者: 郭宗楼(http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2563-7931)
作者简介:
作者Email: zlguo@zju.edu.cn

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