|浙江大学学报(农业与生命科学版) 2017, 43(3) 350-358 DOI: 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9209.2016.06.111 ISSN: 1008-9209 CN: 33-1247/S|
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|（1.上海海洋大学水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心/农业部淡水水产种质资源重点实验室/上海市水产养殖工程技术研究中心/上海海洋大学水产动物遗传育种协同创新中心，上海 201306；2.云南省水产技术推广站，昆明 650034；3.遵义市水产站，贵州 遵义 563000）|
|摘要： 在幼蟹塘种植不同面积的芦苇稻（分别占池塘面积的10%、20%、30%）后，对池塘水体水温、溶解氧、pH值、钙镁总硬度、高锰酸钾盐指数、总氮、氨氮、亚硝酸盐氮、硝酸盐氮、总磷、磷酸盐磷、叶绿素a 12项水质指标进行监测，探究合理的芦苇稻种植面积对幼蟹池塘养殖水的净化效果，了解其水质变化规律。结果表明：种植芦苇稻幼蟹塘的亚硝酸盐氮、总磷、磷酸盐磷含量总体低于不种植芦苇稻的对照组，而高锰酸钾盐指数和叶绿素a含量高于对照组，其他各指标二者差异不明显；在养殖中后期，种植30%面积芦苇稻幼蟹塘的高锰酸钾盐指数、氨氮、亚硝酸盐氮、磷酸盐磷、叶绿素a较种植10%、20%面积芦苇稻组的池塘高，而溶解氧、钙镁总硬度、硝酸盐氮则相反；在养殖期间，种植20%面积芦苇稻幼蟹塘的叶绿素a含量总体低于10%面积幼蟹塘；此外，种植芦苇稻后幼蟹池塘水体pH值达到渔业水质和地表水环境标准，高锰酸钾盐指数、总磷、氨氮、总氮分别达到地表水环境标准的Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ级标准。综上表明：芦苇稻对幼蟹池塘水体有较好的净化能力；幼蟹塘套种50%水花生+20%芦苇稻的水质条件最好。|
|关键词： 中华绒螯蟹 芦苇稻 水质净化 叶绿素a|
|Preliminary study on effects of different areas of reed type rice on water purification in young crab pond|
|WEN Xu1, MA Xuzhou1*, FAN Wei2, LI Xingxing3|
(1. Notional Demonstration Centey of Experimental Fisheries Science Education / Key Laboratory of |
Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources, Ministry of Agriculture / Shanghai Engineering Research
Center of Aquaculture/Collaborative Innovation Center for Aquatic Animal Genetics and Breeding,
Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China; 2. Fisheries Technology Extension Station of
Yunnan Province, Kunming 650034, China ; 3. Fisheries Station of Zunyi City, Zunyi 563000, Guizhou, China)
Due to limited capacity of self?purification of water in ponds, accumulation of feed residue and metabolites lead toendogenous，exogenous pollution, and eutrophication. Currently, physical, chemical and biological methods are used to purifyaquacultural wastewater. Meanwhile，aquatic plants，aquatic animals and microorganism are used to purify water quality. Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is an important economic aquatic crustacean in China; customarily, aquatic plants are often used to purify water quality during the breeding process of high?density cultured young crab. Alternanthera philoxeroides were planted in the pond, which could not only provide a habitat for shelter and moltforcrabs, but also purify the water quality. However, considering the low economic value of A. philoxeroides, some aquatic plants, which can produce high economic value and purify water quality, attracted attention of researchers. As we all know, rice?crab is a complex, efficient and ecological planting and breeding pattern. Meanwhile, reed type rice is lodging?resistant, which has tall stems and developed root system. However, high proportion of reed type rice will reduce the crab activity. space in the pond. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the|
effects of reed type rice-planted area on water quality of crab pond, and provide some references for improving water quality in young crab pond.
Four treatments were conducted, including a control (group A), and three reed type rice?planted are as with 10% (group B), 20% (group C), 30% (group D), and every treatment had three replicates. Rice was planted around the pond, and transplanted floating aquatic plants (A. philoxeroides) in the middle of the pond, with bamboo piling fixed. Excess A. philoxeroides was removed periodically, which was controlled about 50% of the pond area. From July 2015 to October 2015, the water quality indicators including temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total hardness, permanganate index, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, phosphate phosphorus, chlorophyll a (Chl a)of the young crab pond were monitored. During the test, water samples were collected every 15 days in sunny and windless morning (8:00—9:30). Meanwhile, the determination of all water quality indicators was carried out using the procedure reported by Water and Wastewater Monitoring and Analysis Methods (fourth edition). Otherwise, water quality was evaluated according to Culture Area Fishery Water Quality Standard (GB 11607—1989) and Surface Water Quality Standard (GB 3838—2002).
The results indicated that the contents of nitrite nitrogen, total phosphorus and phosphate phosphorus in the reed type riceplanted crab pond were generally lower than those in the control group, while the contents of permanganate index and Chl a were higher than those of control. There were no significant differences of the other indexes between the treatment groups and control group. In the later stage of culture, the contents of permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, phosphate phosphates and Chl a in the group D were higher than those in the group B and group C. While, the dissolved oxygen, total
hardness and nitrate nitrogen content were the opposite. During the feeding period, the Chl a content in the group C was generally lower than that in the group B. Furthermore, the pH of water in the pond was in line with the fishery water quality and surface water environment standards, while the permanganate index, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen reached class Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ of surface water environment standard, respectively.
In conclusion, reed type rice can purify the water quality in young crab pond, and the water quality is the best when 50% A. philoxeroides + 20% reed type rice are planted in young crab pond.
|Keywords: Chinese mitten crab reed type rice water purification chlorophyll a|
|收稿日期 2016-06-11 修回日期 网络版发布日期 2016-09-20|
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